Brief Communications

  • Brief Communication |

    Toren et al. show that outcomes that are better or worse than expected lengthen or shorten the perceived duration of stimuli, respectively, and that this interaction between teaching signals and time perception occurs in the human striatum.

    • Ido Toren
    • , Kristoffer C. Aberg
    •  & Rony Paz
  • Brief Communication |

    This study shows that the dorsal hippocampus is necessary for goal-directed action, but only transiently, during initial learning. Convergently, goal-directed actions also depend transiently on the physical context.

    • Laura A. Bradfield
    • , Beatrice K. Leung
    • , Susan Boldt
    • , Sophia Liang
    •  & Bernard W. Balleine
  • Brief Communication |

    Brain connectivity and normalized wiring costs are conserved across mammals independently of brain size according to a common principle: species with fewer interhemispheric connections exhibit better intrahemispheric connectivity.

    • Yaniv Assaf
    • , Arieli Bouznach
    • , Omri Zomet
    • , Assaf Marom
    •  & Yossi Yovel
  • Brief Communication |

    Greater novelty and diversity in one’s daily physical environment is associated with positive affect, and functional connectivity within a hippocampal–striatal circuit is related to the strength of this effect.

    • Aaron S. Heller
    • , Tracey C. Shi
    • , C. E. Chiemeka Ezie
    • , Travis R. Reneau
    • , Lara M. Baez
    • , Conor J. Gibbons
    •  & Catherine A. Hartley
  • Brief Communication |

    Proteome-wide association studies of brain samples from older adults revealed effects of cerebral atherosclerosis and Alzheimer’s disease. A subset of proteins and protein co-expression modules were associated with both, suggesting shared mechanisms.

    • Aliza P. Wingo
    • , Wen Fan
    • , Duc M. Duong
    • , Ekaterina S. Gerasimov
    • , Eric B. Dammer
    • , Yue Liu
    • , Nadia V. Harerimana
    • , Bartholomew White
    • , Madhav Thambisetty
    • , Juan C. Troncoso
    • , Namhee Kim
    • , Julie A. Schneider
    • , Ihab M. Hajjar
    • , James J. Lah
    • , David A. Bennett
    • , Nicholas T. Seyfried
    • , Allan I. Levey
    •  & Thomas S. Wingo
  • Brief Communication |

    A new subset of disease-associated astrocytes (DAAs) is identified in a mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease by single-nucleus RNA sequencing. DAAs are also found in aged wild-type mice, suggesting a link to genetic and age-related factors.

    • Naomi Habib
    • , Cristin McCabe
    • , Sedi Medina
    • , Miriam Varshavsky
    • , Daniel Kitsberg
    • , Raz Dvir-Szternfeld
    • , Gilad Green
    • , Danielle Dionne
    • , Lan Nguyen
    • , Jamie L. Marshall
    • , Fei Chen
    • , Feng Zhang
    • , Tommy Kaplan
    • , Aviv Regev
    •  & Michal Schwartz
  • Brief Communication |

    Balezeau et al. find a primate homolog of the human language pathway within the auditory system of monkeys and apes. This discovery pushes back the human language pathway’s origin by about 20 million years and illuminates its remarkable evolutionary transformation.

    • Fabien Balezeau
    • , Benjamin Wilson
    • , Guillermo Gallardo
    • , Fred Dick
    • , William Hopkins
    • , Alfred Anwander
    • , Angela D. Friederici
    • , Timothy D. Griffiths
    •  & Christopher I. Petkov
  • Brief Communication |

    Durante et al. report the presence of active neurogenic niches in adult humans using single-cell RNA sequencing of the human olfactory neuroepithelium. Data from the olfactory neuroepithelium niche provide evidence that neuron production may continue for decades in humans.

    • Michael A. Durante
    • , Stefan Kurtenbach
    • , Zoukaa B. Sargi
    • , J. William Harbour
    • , Rhea Choi
    • , Sarah Kurtenbach
    • , Garrett M. Goss
    • , Hiroaki Matsunami
    •  & Bradley J. Goldstein
  • Brief Communication |

    Wang et al. show that myelination is greatly inhibited in aged brains. Enhancing myelination by ablation of M1R in OPCs or clemastine treatment promotes oligodendroglial differentiation and consequently rescues spatial memory decline during aging.

    • Fei Wang
    • , Shu-Yu Ren
    • , Jing-Fei Chen
    • , Kun Liu
    • , Rui-Xue Li
    • , Zhi-Fang Li
    • , Bo Hu
    • , Jian-Qin Niu
    • , Lan Xiao
    • , Jonah R. Chan
    •  & Feng Mei
  • Brief Communication |

    Maes et al. use second-order conditioning, blocking and optogenetic inhibition to show that cue-evoked dopamine transients function as temporal-difference prediction errors rather than reward predictions.

    • Etienne J. P Maes
    • , Melissa J. Sharpe
    • , Alexandra A. Usypchuk
    • , Megan Lozzi
    • , Chun Yun Chang
    • , Matthew P. H. Gardner
    • , Geoffrey Schoenbaum
    •  & Mihaela D. Iordanova
  • Brief Communication |

    Arc, a master regulator of synaptic plasticity, can mediate intercellular RNA transfer. Arc evolved from retrotransposon genes. Erlendsson et al. present structures of retroviral-like Arc capsids as a basis to understand their function.

    • Simon Erlendsson
    • , Dustin R. Morado
    • , Harrison B. Cullen
    • , Cedric Feschotte
    • , Jason D. Shepherd
    •  & John A. G. Briggs
  • Brief Communication |

    Kodama et al. show that microglia from male and female adult mice have distinct microRNA profiles and that loss of microglial microRNAs leads to sex-specific changes in the microglial transcriptome and tau pathology.

    • Lay Kodama
    • , Elmer Guzman
    • , Jon I. Etchegaray
    • , Yaqiao Li
    • , Faten A. Sayed
    • , Lu Zhou
    • , Yungui Zhou
    • , Lihong Zhan
    • , David Le
    • , Joe C. Udeochu
    • , Claire D. Clelland
    • , Zuolin Cheng
    • , Guoqiang Yu
    • , Qingyun Li
    • , Kenneth S. Kosik
    •  & Li Gan
  • Brief Communication |

    Graves et al. demonstrate that as the neurotransmitter dopamine cycles through the cytosol at release sites, it can be metabolized by a mitochondrial enzyme to help generate the energy necessary to sustain synaptic function.

    • Steven M. Graves
    • , Zhong Xie
    • , Kristen A. Stout
    • , Enrico Zampese
    • , Lena F. Burbulla
    • , Jean C. Shih
    • , Jyothisri Kondapalli
    • , Tommaso Patriarchi
    • , Lin Tian
    • , Lars Brichta
    • , Paul Greengard
    • , Dimitri Krainc
    • , Paul T. Schumacker
    •  & D. James Surmeier
  • Brief Communication |

    Using structural MRI data from 45,615 individuals aged 3–96 years, Kaufmann and colleagues reveal that common brain disorders are associated with heritable patterns of apparent aging of the brain.

    • Tobias Kaufmann
    • , Dennis van der Meer
    • , Nhat Trung Doan
    • , Emanuel Schwarz
    • , Martina J. Lund
    • , Ingrid Agartz
    • , Dag Alnæs
    • , Deanna M. Barch
    • , Ramona Baur-Streubel
    • , Alessandro Bertolino
    • , Francesco Bettella
    • , Mona K. Beyer
    • , Erlend Bøen
    • , Stefan Borgwardt
    • , Christine L. Brandt
    • , Jan Buitelaar
    • , Elisabeth G. Celius
    • , Simon Cervenka
    • , Annette Conzelmann
    • , Aldo Córdova-Palomera
    • , Anders M. Dale
    • , Dominique J. F. de Quervain
    • , Pasquale Di Carlo
    • , Srdjan Djurovic
    • , Erlend S. Dørum
    • , Sarah Eisenacher
    • , Torbjørn Elvsåshagen
    • , Thomas Espeseth
    • , Helena Fatouros-Bergman
    • , Lena Flyckt
    • , Barbara Franke
    • , Oleksandr Frei
    • , Beathe Haatveit
    • , Asta K. Håberg
    • , Hanne F. Harbo
    • , Catharina A. Hartman
    • , Dirk Heslenfeld
    • , Pieter J. Hoekstra
    • , Einar A. Høgestøl
    • , Terry L. Jernigan
    • , Rune Jonassen
    • , Erik G. Jönsson
    • , Lars Farde
    • , Lena Flyckt
    • , Göran Engberg
    • , Sophie Erhardt
    • , Helena Fatouros-Bergman
    • , Simon Cervenka
    • , Lilly Schwieler
    • , Fredrik Piehl
    • , Ingrid Agartz
    • , Karin Collste
    • , Pauliina Victorsson
    • , Anna Malmqvist
    • , Mikael Hedberg
    • , Funda Orhan
    • , Peter Kirsch
    • , Iwona Kłoszewska
    • , Knut K. Kolskår
    • , Nils Inge Landrø
    • , Stephanie Le Hellard
    • , Klaus-Peter Lesch
    • , Simon Lovestone
    • , Arvid Lundervold
    • , Astri J. Lundervold
    • , Luigi A. Maglanoc
    • , Ulrik F. Malt
    • , Patrizia Mecocci
    • , Ingrid Melle
    • , Andreas Meyer-Lindenberg
    • , Torgeir Moberget
    • , Linn B. Norbom
    • , Jan Egil Nordvik
    • , Lars Nyberg
    • , Jaap Oosterlaan
    • , Marco Papalino
    • , Andreas Papassotiropoulos
    • , Paul Pauli
    • , Giulio Pergola
    • , Karin Persson
    • , Geneviève Richard
    • , Jaroslav Rokicki
    • , Anne-Marthe Sanders
    • , Geir Selbæk
    • , Alexey A. Shadrin
    • , Olav B. Smeland
    • , Hilkka Soininen
    • , Piotr Sowa
    • , Vidar M. Steen
    • , Magda Tsolaki
    • , Kristine M. Ulrichsen
    • , Bruno Vellas
    • , Lei Wang
    • , Eric Westman
    • , Georg C. Ziegler
    • , Mathias Zink
    • , Ole A. Andreassen
    •  & Lars T. Westlye
  • Brief Communication |

    Tost et al. show that urban green space exposure improves well-being, particularly in people dwelling in relatively deprived areas and showing less prefrontal activity during emotion processing, a neural signature that is linked to mental health risk.

    • Heike Tost
    • , Markus Reichert
    • , Urs Braun
    • , Iris Reinhard
    • , Robin Peters
    • , Sven Lautenbach
    • , Andreas Hoell
    • , Emanuel Schwarz
    • , Ulrich Ebner-Priemer
    • , Alexander Zipf
    •  & Andreas Meyer-Lindenberg
  • Brief Communication |

    A nucleotide repeat expansion in the C9orf72 gene is the most common cause of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. The mutation causes production of aberrant proteins by an enigmatic form of translation. Yamada et al. identify that RPS25 is required for this form of translation.

    • Shizuka B. Yamada
    • , Tania F. Gendron
    • , Teresa Niccoli
    • , Naomi R. Genuth
    • , Rosslyn Grosely
    • , Yingxiao Shi
    • , Idoia Glaria
    • , Nicholas J. Kramer
    • , Lisa Nakayama
    • , Shirleen Fang
    • , Tai J. I. Dinger
    • , Annora Thoeng
    • , Gabriel Rocha
    • , Maria Barna
    • , Joseph D. Puglisi
    • , Linda Partridge
    • , Justin K. Ichida
    • , Adrian M. Isaacs
    • , Leonard Petrucelli
    •  & Aaron D. Gitler
  • Brief Communication |

    A new study reveals that complete loss of TREM2 function or expression of the TREM2R47H Alzheimer’s disease risk variant hinders amyloid-β plaque-associated microglia, leaving peri-plaque neurites susceptible to tau seeding and spreading.

    • Cheryl E. G. Leyns
    • , Maud Gratuze
    • , Sneha Narasimhan
    • , Nimansha Jain
    • , Lauren J. Koscal
    • , Hong Jiang
    • , Melissa Manis
    • , Marco Colonna
    • , Virginia M. Y. Lee
    • , Jason D. Ulrich
    •  & David M. Holtzman
  • Brief Communication |

    Optogenetics has revolutionized neuroscience, but intracranial illumination can cause off-target effects. Owen et al. identify a temperature-sensitive potassium current that modulates neuronal activity and behavior independent of opsin expression.

    • Scott F. Owen
    • , Max H. Liu
    •  & Anatol C. Kreitzer
  • Brief Communication |

    The authors show that decreased synaptic efficacy onto raphe-projecting lateral habenula neurons supports opiate withdrawal-induced sociability deficits, and they demonstrate a role for TNF-α signaling in this process.

    • Kristina Valentinova
    • , Anna Tchenio
    • , Massimo Trusel
    • , Joseph A. Clerke
    • , Arnaud L. Lalive
    • , Stamatina Tzanoulinou
    • , Alessandro Matera
    • , Imane Moutkine
    • , Luc Maroteaux
    • , Rosa C. Paolicelli
    • , Andrea Volterra
    • , Camilla Bellone
    •  & Manuel Mameli
  • Brief Communication |

    Lloyd et al. find that regeneration of CNS myelin requires death of proinflammatory microglia followed by repopulation to a pro-regenerative state, revealing new therapeutic targets for neurodegenerative disease.

    • Amy F. Lloyd
    • , Claire L. Davies
    • , Rebecca K. Holloway
    • , Yasmine Labrak
    • , Graeme Ireland
    • , Dario Carradori
    • , Alessandra Dillenburg
    • , Eva Borger
    • , Daniel Soong
    • , Jill C. Richardson
    • , Tanja Kuhlmann
    • , Anna Williams
    • , Jeffrey W. Pollard
    • , Anne des Rieux
    • , Josef Priller
    •  & Veronique E. Miron
  • Brief Communication |

    Park et al. demonstrate in vivo the efficacy of Cas9 nanocomplexes as therapeutic agents in mouse models of Alzheimer’s disease. This strategy may be applicable to the treatment of a broad range of neurological diseases.

    • Hanseul Park
    • , Jungju Oh
    • , Gayong Shim
    • , Byounggook Cho
    • , Yujung Chang
    • , Siyoung Kim
    • , Soonbong Baek
    • , Hongwon Kim
    • , Jeain Shin
    • , Hwan Choi
    • , Junsang Yoo
    • , Junyeop Kim
    • , Won Jun
    • , Minhyung Lee
    • , Christopher J Lengner
    • , Yu-Kyoung Oh
    •  & Jongpil Kim
  • Brief Communication |

    Weiler et al demonstrate that the fastest spinal feedback pathway can integrate information from the elbow and wrist, and take into account the arm’s orientation to produce corrective responses that help to maintain the hand’s position in space.

    • Jeffrey Weiler
    • , Paul L. Gribble
    •  & J. Andrew Pruszynski
  • Brief Communication |

    Herman et al. exploit the reliable effects of perturbing superior colliculus (SC) neuronal activity on perceptual choice behavior to demonstrate a plausible mechanism by which SC may contribute to perceptual judgments during covert attention tasks.

    • James P. Herman
    • , Leor N. Katz
    •  & Richard J. Krauzlis
  • Brief Communication |

    Whether MeCP2 competes with linker histone H1 for DNA binding has never been tested in vivo. Ito-Ishida et al. performed ChIP-seq on MeCP2 and Flag-H1.0 in mouse forebrain neurons and reveal that their genomic distributions are largely independent.

    • Aya Ito-Ishida
    • , Hari Krishna Yamalanchili
    • , Yingyao Shao
    • , Steven A. Baker
    • , Laura D. Heckman
    • , Laura A. Lavery
    • , Ji-yoen Kim
    • , Laura M. Lombardi
    • , Yaling Sun
    • , Zhandong Liu
    •  & Huda Y. Zoghbi
  • Brief Communication |

    mTORC1 was posited as required for hippocampal mGluR-LTD at CA1 synapses based on its pharmacological inhibition with rapamycin. Using molecular genetics, the authors show that mTORC2 but not mTORC1 is required for mGluR-LTD and associated behaviors.

    • Ping Jun Zhu
    • , Chien-Ju Chen
    • , Jacqunae Mays
    • , Loredana Stoica
    •  & Mauro Costa-Mattioli
  • Brief Communication |

    The neuropeptide CRH is believed to induce aversive, stress-like behavioral responses. Here the authors describe a distinct population of CRH neurons in the extended amygdala that act to suppress anxiety by positively modulating dopamine release.

    • Nina Dedic
    • , Claudia Kühne
    • , Mira Jakovcevski
    • , Jakob Hartmann
    • , Andreas J. Genewsky
    • , Karina S. Gomes
    • , Elmira Anderzhanova
    • , Max L. Pöhlmann
    • , Simon Chang
    • , Adam Kolarz
    • , Annette M. Vogl
    • , Julien Dine
    • , Michael W. Metzger
    • , Bianca Schmid
    • , Rafael C. Almada
    • , Kerry J. Ressler
    • , Carsten T. Wotjak
    • , Valery Grinevich
    • , Alon Chen
    • , Mathias V. Schmidt
    • , Wolfgang Wurst
    • , Damian Refojo
    •  & Jan M. Deussing
  • Brief Communication |

    Whether we currently pay attention to memory items matters for their neural representation. Unattended items are stored exclusively in activity of higher-level brain areas, whereas attended items are also represented in low-level sensory regions.

    • Thomas B. Christophel
    • , Polina Iamshchinina
    • , Chang Yan
    • , Carsten Allefeld
    •  & John-Dylan Haynes
  • Brief Communication |

    The authors show that Mrgprs, vagal sensory neuron-expressing GPCRs, mediate bronchoconstriction and hyperresponsiveness, both of which are hallmark features of asthma. The results reveal novel potential neural mechanisms underlying asthma.

    • Liang Han
    • , Nathachit Limjunyawong
    • , Fei Ru
    • , Zhe Li
    • , Olivia J. Hall
    • , Haley Steele
    • , Yuyan Zhu
    • , Julie Wilson
    • , Wayne Mitzner
    • , Marian Kollarik
    • , Bradley J. Undem
    • , Brendan J. Canning
    •  & Xinzhong Dong
  • Brief Communication |

    fMRI activity in human entorhinal cortex is modulated by eye-movement direction with 60° periodicity, implicating a grid cell-like code in mapping visual space. This suggests a role for entorhinal grid coding in cognition beyond spatial navigation.

    • Matthias Nau
    • , Tobias Navarro Schröder
    • , Jacob L. S. Bellmund
    •  & Christian F. Doeller
  • Brief Communication |

    The authors show that human entorhinal cortex supports a grid cell-like representation of visual space. This visual grid pattern is stably anchored to the external visual world in a fashion analogous to rodent grid representations of navigable space.

    • Joshua B. Julian
    • , Alexandra T. Keinath
    • , Giulia Frazzetta
    •  & Russell A. Epstein
  • Brief Communication |

    The authors live-image zebrafish myelin sheath Ca2+ activity in vivo and find that high-amplitude long-duration Ca2+ transients precede calpain-dependent sheath retractions while frequent low-amplitude short-duration transients drive sheath growth.

    • Marion Baraban
    • , Sigrid Koudelka
    •  & David A. Lyons
  • Brief Communication |

    A genome-wide association study of delay discounting (DD) on 23,127 subjects found that genotype accounted for 12% of variance in DD; the DD genetic signature overlapped with ADHD, schizophrenia, depression, smoking, personality, cognition and weight.

    • Sandra Sanchez-Roige
    • , Pierre Fontanillas
    • , Sarah L. Elson
    • , Anita Pandit
    • , Ellen M. Schmidt
    • , Johanna R. Foerster
    • , Gonçalo R. Abecasis
    • , Joshua C. Gray
    • , Harriet de Wit
    • , Lea K. Davis
    • , James MacKillop
    •  & Abraham A. Palmer
  • Brief Communication |

    Most species exhibit instinctive risk-avoidance, e.g., lab mice avoid predator smells despite having never encountered predators. Here the authors show how innate risk-avoidance arises from accumbal dopamine receptor neurons tuned by orexin signals.

    • Craig Blomeley
    • , Celia Garau
    •  & Denis Burdakov
  • Brief Communication |

    The authors show that PKC-δ-expressing neurons in the central amygdala, are essential for synaptic plasticity underlying learning in the lateral amygdala, as they convey information about unconditioned stimulus to the lateral amygdala as a teaching signal.

    • Kai Yu
    • , Sandra Ahrens
    • , Xian Zhang
    • , Hillary Schiff
    • , Charu Ramakrishnan
    • , Lief Fenno
    • , Karl Deisseroth
    • , Fei Zhao
    • , Min-Hua Luo
    • , Ling Gong
    • , Miao He
    • , Pengcheng Zhou
    • , Liam Paninski
    •  & Bo Li
  • Brief Communication |

    Human perception can improve through repeated practice, enabling perceptual learning. The authors report findings challenging the fundamental ‘practice makes perfect’ basis of procedural learning theory. They show that brief periods in which visual memory is reactivated are sufficient to improve basic perceptual thresholds, supporting a new account of perceptual learning dynamics.

    • Rotem Amar-Halpert
    • , Rony Laor-Maayany
    • , Shlomi Nemni
    • , Jonathan D Rosenblatt
    •  & Nitzan Censor
  • Brief Communication |

    Zika virus infection is associated with neurological disorders, yet few studies have directly examined its impact on the peripheral nervous system. Oh et al. show that Zika virus can infect peripheral neurons in the mouse in vivo, as well as human peripheral neurons in vitro, leading to increased cell death and transcriptional dysregulation.

    • Yohan Oh
    • , Feiran Zhang
    • , Yaqing Wang
    • , Emily M Lee
    • , In Young Choi
    • , Hotae Lim
    • , Fahimeh Mirakhori
    • , Ronghua Li
    • , Luoxiu Huang
    • , Tianlei Xu
    • , Hao Wu
    • , Cui Li
    • , Cheng-Feng Qin
    • , Zhexing Wen
    • , Qing-Feng Wu
    • , Hengli Tang
    • , Zhiheng Xu
    • , Peng Jin
    • , Hongjun Song
    • , Guo-li Ming
    •  & Gabsang Lee
  • Brief Communication |

    Recent evidence supports a functional connection between gut microbiota and the nervous system. Here the authors show that gut microbiota plays a critical role in the development of chemotherapy-induced pain. This role of the microbiota is likely mediated, in part, by Tlr4 expressed on hematopoietic cells, including macrophages.

    • Shiqian Shen
    • , Grewo Lim
    • , Zerong You
    • , Weihua Ding
    • , Peigen Huang
    • , Chongzhao Ran
    • , Jason Doheny
    • , Peter Caravan
    • , Samuel Tate
    • , Kun Hu
    • , Hyangin Kim
    • , Michael McCabe
    • , Bo Huang
    • , Zhongcong Xie
    • , Douglas Kwon
    • , Lucy Chen
    •  & Jianren Mao
  • Brief Communication |

    This study on neurodevelopment of functional networks reveals a network tuning process that transforms the human connectome into a stable, individualized wiring pattern. Delay in this tuning was associated with disordered mental health, revealing the detrimental paths that brain plasticity can take during adolescence, when initial symptoms of mental illness occur.

    • Tobias Kaufmann
    • , Dag Alnæs
    • , Nhat Trung Doan
    • , Christine Lycke Brandt
    • , Ole A Andreassen
    •  & Lars T Westlye
  • Brief Communication |

    The identity of the cell types contributing to the [18F]FDG positron emission tomography signal remain highly controversial. In this study, the authors demonstrate that activating glutamate astrocytic transport increases brain [18F]FDG uptake. These findings indicate that astrocytes may also impact [18F]FDG positron emission tomography signal.

    • Eduardo R Zimmer
    • , Maxime J Parent
    • , Débora G Souza
    • , Antoine Leuzy
    • , Clotilde Lecrux
    • , Hyoung-Ihl Kim
    • , Serge Gauthier
    • , Luc Pellerin
    • , Edith Hamel
    •  & Pedro Rosa-Neto
  • Brief Communication |

    Dysfunction of the neuroendocrine HPA axis is associated with a variety of physiological and psychological pathologies. The authors show that corticotropin-releasing factor type 1 receptors within the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus are a key central component of HPA axis regulation that prepares the organism for chronic exposure to stressful stimuli.

    • Assaf Ramot
    • , Zhiying Jiang
    • , Jin-Bin Tian
    • , Tali Nahum
    • , Yael Kuperman
    • , Nicholas Justice
    •  & Alon Chen
  • Brief Communication |

    Using large-network calcium imaging in alert mouse frontal cortex, the authors identify a significant covariance of responses of VIP interneurons and pyramidal cells. Optogenetic interrogation of this brain region revealed a pull–push inhibitory circuit driven by neuromodulation of VIP interneurons that contrasts with canonical feedforward push–pull excitation.

    • Pablo Garcia-Junco-Clemente
    • , Taruna Ikrar
    • , Elaine Tring
    • , Xiangmin Xu
    • , Dario L Ringach
    •  & Joshua T Trachtenberg
  • Brief Communication |

    Using an environment composed of interconnected paths, the authors demonstrate that subiculum encodes a previously unrecognized form of spatial information, the axis of travel. This discovery has implications for how path positions and orientations can be related to the larger environment.

    • Jacob M Olson
    • , Kanyanat Tongprasearth
    •  & Douglas A Nitz
  • Brief Communication |

    The authors report on a subpopulation of neurons in retrosplenial cortex that is more sensitive to head direction in a local, visually defined reference frame than to global head direction. These neurons may be the means by which visual landmark information can influence the overall sense of direction.

    • Pierre-Yves Jacob
    • , Giulio Casali
    • , Laure Spieser
    • , Hector Page
    • , Dorothy Overington
    •  & Kate Jeffery