Browse Articles

  • Article |

    Ziegler, Hauser et al. report brain-wide, myelin-related microstructural growth from adolescence to adulthood and show that this longitudinal growth is reduced in the presence of compulsivity and impulsivity traits.

    • Gabriel Ziegler
    • , Tobias U. Hauser
    • , Michael Moutoussis
    • , Edward T. Bullmore
    • , Ian M. Goodyer
    • , Peter Fonagy
    • , Peter B. Jones
    • , Ulman Lindenberger
    •  & Raymond J. Dolan
  • Article |

    Aydin et al. show that the proneural factors Ascl1 and Neurog2 bind to largely non-overlapping sites in the genome, establishing distinct chromatin landscapes that shape the activity of downstream factors during neuronal fate specification.

    • Begüm Aydin
    • , Akshay Kakumanu
    • , Mary Rossillo
    • , Mireia Moreno-Estellés
    • , Görkem Garipler
    • , Niels Ringstad
    • , Nuria Flames
    • , Shaun Mahony
    •  & Esteban O. Mazzoni
  • Article |

    The authors generated a mouse model of C9ORF72-related amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal dementia based on dipeptide repeat proteins and report that defects in mitochondria may contribute to disease pathogenesis.

    • So Yoen Choi
    • , Rodrigo Lopez-Gonzalez
    • , Gopinath Krishnan
    • , Hannah L. Phillips
    • , Alissa Nana Li
    • , William W. Seeley
    • , Wei-Dong Yao
    • , Sandra Almeida
    •  & Fen-Biao Gao
  • Resource |

    Van Hove et al. reveal the diversity of macrophages at the brain’s border regions via single-cell analysis and fate-mapping. This also identified a microglial subset at the surface of the choroid plexus, in direct contact with cerebrospinal fluid.

    • Hannah Van Hove
    • , Liesbet Martens
    • , Isabelle Scheyltjens
    • , Karen De Vlaminck
    • , Ana Rita Pombo Antunes
    • , Sofie De Prijck
    • , Niels Vandamme
    • , Sebastiaan De Schepper
    • , Gert Van Isterdael
    • , Charlotte L. Scott
    • , Jeroen Aerts
    • , Geert Berx
    • , Guy E. Boeckxstaens
    • , Roosmarijn E. Vandenbroucke
    • , Lars Vereecke
    • , Diederik Moechars
    • , Martin Guilliams
    • , Jo A. Van Ginderachter
    • , Yvan Saeys
    •  & Kiavash Movahedi
  • Article |

    Lu et al. report a pathway that reprograms protein quality control under stress. Identified in a Caenorhabditis elegans screen and characterized in mammalian systems, L3MBTL1 and its partner SETD8 modulate proteotoxicity and are deregulated in patients with ALS/FTD.

    • Jiayin Lu
    • , Goran Periz
    • , Yu-Ning Lu
    • , Qing Tang
    • , Yang Liu
    • , Tao Zhang
    • , Yajas Shah
    • , Ravi Thombre
    • , Reham Aljumaah
    • , Weixin Li
    • , Jelena Mojsilovic-Petrovic
    • , Yon Ji
    • , Kenji Johnson
    • , Robert Kalb
    •  & Jiou Wang
  • News & Views |

    The CNS harbors distinct subsets of macrophages, including parenchymal microglia and macrophages residing at border regions (for example, meninges and the choroid plexus). In this issue of Nature Neuroscience, Van Hove and colleagues elegantly demonstrate the diversity and dynamics of non-parenchymal macrophages and identify a unique microglial subtype within the choroid plexus.

    • Sebastian G. Utz
    •  & Melanie Greter
  • News & Views |

    Using light-activated ion channels to stimulate sensory and motivational pathways, Vetere and colleagues constructed fully artificial memories in mice. Mice preferred or avoided an odor they had never smelled before, depending on the pattern of stimulation.

    • Mark G. Baxter
    •  & Nicholas A. Upright
  • Article |

    Pairing an odor conditioned stimulus (CS) with an unconditioned stimulus (US) induces memory formation. Vetere et al. replace the real CS and US with direct optogenetic stimulation of the brain and create a fully artificial odor memory in mice.

    • Gisella Vetere
    • , Lina M. Tran
    • , Sara Moberg
    • , Patrick E. Steadman
    • , Leonardo Restivo
    • , Filomene G. Morrison
    • , Kerry J. Ressler
    • , Sheena A. Josselyn
    •  & Paul W. Frankland
  • Article |

    The brain predicts future sensory input. The authors hypothesize that the visual system achieves this by straightening the temporal trajectories of natural videos, and they provide evidence using human perceptual experiments and computational modeling.

    • Olivier J. Hénaff
    • , Robbe L. T. Goris
    •  & Eero P. Simoncelli
  • Article |

    Dong, Wang et al. uncover a circuit linking Glu+cingulate inputs→PV+ neurons in the limbic thalamic reticular nucleus→intermediodorsal thalamic nucleus, and show that this cortico-intrathalamic circuit is a component of the fear circuitry and controls flight behavior in mice.

    • Ping Dong
    • , Hao Wang
    • , Xiao-Fan Shen
    • , Ping Jiang
    • , Xu-Tao Zhu
    • , Yue Li
    • , Jia-Hao Gao
    • , Shan Lin
    • , Yue Huang
    • , Xiao-Bin He
    • , Fu-Qiang Xu
    • , Shumin Duan
    • , Hong Lian
    • , Hao Wang
    • , Jiadong Chen
    •  & Xiao-Ming Li
  • News & Views |

    DNA damage or cellular stresses can induce senescence, and increased senescence with aging contributes to age-associated tissue damage, inflammation and disease. Zheng and colleagues report increased senescent oligodendrocyte progenitor cells around amyloid plaques. Therapeutically eliminating these senescent cells may influence the onset and progression of Alzheimer’s disease pathology.

    • David Holtzman
    •  & Jason Ulrich
  • Article |

    Barak et al. show that deletion of Gtf2i, a gene deleted in Williams syndrome, from the excitatory neurons of the forebrain reduced myelin thickness and axonal conduction. Rescuing myelination with a US Food and Drug Administration-approved drug restored normal behavior.

    • Boaz Barak
    • , Zicong Zhang
    • , Yuanyuan Liu
    • , Ariel Nir
    • , Sari S. Trangle
    • , Michaela Ennis
    • , Kirsten M. Levandowski
    • , Dongqing Wang
    • , Kathleen Quast
    • , Gabriella L. Boulting
    • , Yi Li
    • , Dashzeveg Bayarsaihan
    • , Zhigang He
    •  & Guoping Feng
  • News & Views |

    Robust conclusions require rigorous statistics. In 2009 a seminal paper described the dangers and prevalence of double-dipping in neuroscience. Ten years on, I consider progress toward statistical rigor in neuroimaging.

    • Katherine S. Button
  • News & Views |

    A new study reveals an unexpected mechanism underlying behavioral abnormalities in the neurodevelopmental disorder Williams syndrome. A deficit in myelination, resulting from the deletion of a Williams syndrome-associated gene in forebrain excitatory neurons, causes hypersociability by impairing action potential conduction. Accordingly, rescuing myelination or conduction normalizes this behavior.

    • Lindsay A. Osso
    •  & Jonah R. Chan
  • Article |

    The authors discover neurons in the human prefrontal cortex that encode subjective decisions and that may underlie the process by which opinions are formed. They also find how disruption of these neurons selectively interferes with the decision-making process.

    • Mohsen Jamali
    • , Ben Grannan
    • , Keren Haroush
    • , Ziev B. Moses
    • , Emad N. Eskandar
    • , Todd Herrington
    • , Shaun Patel
    •  & Ziv M. Williams
  • Article |

    The authors report that the presynaptic protein bassoon forms toxic aggregates in neuronal somata in multiple sclerosis. Stimulation of proteasomal activity reduces bassoon aggregates, neuroaxonal loss and disability during CNS inflammation.

    • Benjamin Schattling
    • , Jan Broder Engler
    • , Constantin Volkmann
    • , Nicola Rothammer
    • , Marcel S. Woo
    • , Meike Petersen
    • , Iris Winkler
    • , Max Kaufmann
    • , Sina C. Rosenkranz
    • , Anna Fejtova
    • , Ulrich Thomas
    • , Aparajita Bose
    • , Simone Bauer
    • , Simone Träger
    • , Katharine K. Miller
    • , Wolfgang Brück
    • , Kent E. Duncan
    • , Gabriela Salinas
    • , Peter Soba
    • , Eckart D. Gundelfinger
    • , Doron Merkler
    •  & Manuel A. Friese
  • Article |

    The authors report aberrant oligodendrocyte precursor cell (OPC) interactions with blood vessels in certain multiple sclerosis lesions. These clustered OPCs can disrupt the blood–brain barrier and can impair OPC recruitment to repairing lesions.

    • Jianqin Niu
    • , Hui-Hsin Tsai
    • , Kimberly K. Hoi
    • , Nanxin Huang
    • , Guangdan Yu
    • , Kicheol Kim
    • , Sergio E. Baranzini
    • , Lan Xiao
    • , Jonah R. Chan
    •  & Stephen P. J. Fancy
  • Article |

    Mollink et al. establish a link between white matter microstructure and functional connectivity using MRI data from 11,354 individuals in the UK Biobank. GWAS identified genetic associations of these microstructure–function relationships.

    • Jeroen Mollink
    • , Stephen M. Smith
    • , Lloyd T. Elliott
    • , Michiel Kleinnijenhuis
    • , Marlies Hiemstra
    • , Fidel Alfaro-Almagro
    • , Jonathan Marchini
    • , Anne-Marie van Cappellen van Walsum
    • , Saad Jbabdi
    •  & Karla L. Miller
  • Article |

    Fouragnan et al. used neuroimaging and ultrasound neuromodution in non-human primates to demonstrate the causal role of the anterior cingulate cortex in translating counterfactual values in future choices.

    • Elsa F. Fouragnan
    • , Bolton K. H. Chau
    • , Davide Folloni
    • , Nils Kolling
    • , Lennart Verhagen
    • , Miriam Klein-Flügge
    • , Lev Tankelevitch
    • , Georgios K. Papageorgiou
    • , Jean-Francois Aubry
    • , Jerome Sallet
    •  & Matthew F. S. Rushworth
  • Article |

    Wang et al. present a computational framework integrating multi-omics data to infer key schizophrenia risk genes from GWAS data. These genes are predominantly expressed in the developing brain and are enriched for targets of approved drugs.

    • Quan Wang
    • , Rui Chen
    • , Feixiong Cheng
    • , Qiang Wei
    • , Ying Ji
    • , Hai Yang
    • , Xue Zhong
    • , Ran Tao
    • , Zhexing Wen
    • , James S. Sutcliffe
    • , Chunyu Liu
    • , Edwin H. Cook
    • , Nancy J. Cox
    •  & Bingshan Li
  • Article |

    Using animal models and clinical samples, the authors report that glioblastoma metabolites activate the transcription factor aryl hydrocarbon receptor in tumor-associated macrophages to modulate their function and T cell immunity, promoting tumor growth.

    • Maisa C. Takenaka
    • , Galina Gabriely
    • , Veit Rothhammer
    • , Ivan D. Mascanfroni
    • , Michael A. Wheeler
    • , Chun-Cheih Chao
    • , Cristina Gutiérrez-Vázquez
    • , Jessica Kenison
    • , Emily C. Tjon
    • , Andreia Barroso
    • , Tyler Vandeventer
    • , Kalil Alves de Lima
    • , Sonja Rothweiler
    • , Lior Mayo
    • , Soufiene Ghannam
    • , Stephanie Zandee
    • , Luke Healy
    • , David Sherr
    • , Mauricio F. Farez
    • , Alexandre Pratt
    • , Jack Antel
    • , David A. Reardon
    • , Hailei Zhang
    • , Simon C. Robson
    • , Gad Getz
    • , Howard L. Weiner
    •  & Francisco J. Quintana
  • News & Views |

    Noninvasive delivery of alternating electrical currents to temporal and prefrontal brain regions improves working memory and reverses age-related changes in brain dynamics in the elderly, report Reinhart and Nguyen in this issue of Nature Neuroscience. They also report a similar effect in young adults with poor working memory performance.

    • Romain Quentin
    •  & Leonardo G. Cohen
  • Article |

    The value of an anticipated reward is crucial to adaptive decision-making. The authors delineate the neural circuitry supporting value encoding and retrieval, respectively, by lateral and medial orbitofrontal cortex projections to the basolateral amygdala.

    • Melissa Malvaez
    • , Christine Shieh
    • , Michael D. Murphy
    • , Venuz Y. Greenfield
    •  & Kate M. Wassum
  • News & Views |

    The ventrolateral and medial orbitofrontal cortices are involved in selecting actions based on the value of expected outcomes. Malvaez and colleagues reveal that these brain regions are specialized in value encoding (ventrolateral orbitofrontal cortices) versus value memory retrieval (medial orbitofrontal cortices) and that they interact with the basolateral amygdala to orchestrate goal-oriented reward-seeking.

    • Shannon L. Gourley
  • Article |

    Lacagnina et al. show that extinction training suppresses the associated hippocampal fear engram and generates a distinct extinction engram. Reactivation of extinction engram cells reduces fear, while reactivation of fear engram cells causes fear relapse.

    • Anthony F. Lacagnina
    • , Emma T. Brockway
    • , Chelsea R. Crovetti
    • , Francis Shue
    • , Meredith J. McCarty
    • , Kevin P. Sattler
    • , Sean C. Lim
    • , Sofia Leal Santos
    • , Christine A. Denny
    •  & Michael R. Drew
  • Article |

    The Alzheimer’s disease (AD) amyloid-beta peptide causes oligodendrocyte progenitor cells to undergo senescence, contributing to neuroinflammation and cognitive impairment. Treatment of AD mice with senolytic drugs ameliorates AD neuropathologies and cognitive deficits.

    • Peisu Zhang
    • , Yuki Kishimoto
    • , Ioannis Grammatikakis
    • , Kamalvishnu Gottimukkala
    • , Roy G. Cutler
    • , Shiliang Zhang
    • , Kotb Abdelmohsen
    • , Vilhelm A. Bohr
    • , Jyoti Misra Sen
    • , Myriam Gorospe
    •  & Mark P. Mattson
  • Article |

    The authors have identified a subpopulation of astrocytes that is enriched in cortical layer V of the mouse cortex and is also present in the human cortex. These cells express Norrin, a protein mutated in a rare neurological degenerative disease called Norrie disease. Norrin acts on neurons to modify their morphology and activity.

    • Sean J. Miller
    • , Thomas Philips
    • , Namho Kim
    • , Raha Dastgheyb
    • , Zhuoxun Chen
    • , Yi-Chun Hsieh
    • , J. Gavin Daigle
    • , Malika Datta
    • , Jeannie Chew
    • , Svetlana Vidensky
    • , Jacqueline T. Pham
    • , Ethan G. Hughes
    • , Michael B. Robinson
    • , Rita Sattler
    • , Raju Tomer
    • , Jung Soo Suk
    • , Dwight E. Bergles
    • , Norman Haughey
    • , Mikhail Pletnikov
    • , Justin Hanes
    •  & Jeffrey D. Rothstein
  • Article |

    Using a behaviorally obtained reference point to compute social value, Ma et al. show that social-value distance is encoded by the amygdala in prosocials. Oxytocin amplifies this amygdala representation and increases prosociality in individualists.

    • Yunzhe Liu
    • , Shiyi Li
    • , Wanjun Lin
    • , Wenxin Li
    • , Xinyuan Yan
    • , Xuena Wang
    • , Xinyue Pan
    • , Robb B. Rutledge
    •  & Yina Ma
  • Article |

    Using a novel assay, Ellis et al. show that stem cell-derived neurons from individuals with autism carrying SHANK2 mutations are hyperconnected, have impaired activity-dependent dendrite extension, and have perturbed transcription of ASD gene modules.

    • Kirill Zaslavsky
    • , Wen-Bo Zhang
    • , Fraser P. McCready
    • , Deivid C. Rodrigues
    • , Eric Deneault
    • , Caitlin Loo
    • , Melody Zhao
    • , P. Joel Ross
    • , Joelle El Hajjar
    • , Asli Romm
    • , Tadeo Thompson
    • , Alina Piekna
    • , Wei Wei
    • , Zhuozhi Wang
    • , Shahryar Khattak
    • , Marat Mufteev
    • , Peter Pasceri
    • , Stephen W. Scherer
    • , Michael W. Salter
    •  & James Ellis
  • News & Views |

    When choosing whether to act altruistically, people may compare the current option to an idiosyncratic ideal. Prosocial individuals seem to represent deviations from that ideal in the amygdala, but selfish individuals do not. Oxytocin administration makes selfish individuals look more like prosocial individuals, behaviorally and neurally.

    • Ian D. Roberts
    • , Yi Yang Teoh
    •  & Cendri A. Hutcherson
  • Article |

    Recording from cell ensembles in the medial entorhinal cortex, Gardner et al. show that the correlation structure of the grid cell system is preserved between awake and sleep states. This rigidity is a signature of continuous attractor networks.

    • Richard J. Gardner
    • , Li Lu
    • , Tanja Wernle
    • , May-Britt Moser
    •  & Edvard I. Moser
  • News & Views |

    The cell of origin for malignant brain tumors remains uncertain, but de-differentiation from mature cells in the CNS has always been considered a strong possibility. In this issue of Nature Neuroscience, Alcantara Llaguno and colleagues report that differentiated neurons resist transformation by glioblastoma-associated mutations, pointing to neural stem cells or immature progenitors as the most likely cells of origin for these tumors, rather than cells of a relatively mature neuronal lineage.

    • Peter B. Dirks
  • Resource |

    The connectivity of a cortical region is instrumental to its function. The authors generated brain-wide maps of the afferent input to four distinct cell types in the mPFC to reveal the structural architecture that underlies the mPFC’s functions.

    • Sofie Ährlund-Richter
    • , Yang Xuan
    • , Josina Anna van Lunteren
    • , Hoseok Kim
    • , Cantin Ortiz
    • , Iskra Pollak Dorocic
    • , Konstantinos Meletis
    •  & Marie Carlén
  • Technical Report |

    A modified brain-organoid culture generates extensive axon outgrowth with specific tract-like patterns. Organoid tracts connect neurons across distant sites and can innervate and stimulate co-cultured mouse spinal cord tissue to elicit muscle contractions.

    • Stefano L. Giandomenico
    • , Susanna B. Mierau
    • , George M. Gibbons
    • , Lea M. D. Wenger
    • , Laura Masullo
    • , Timothy Sit
    • , Magdalena Sutcliffe
    • , Jerome Boulanger
    • , Marco Tripodi
    • , Emmanuel Derivery
    • , Ole Paulsen
    • , András Lakatos
    •  & Madeline A. Lancaster
  • Article |

    Clancy et al. investigated the relationship between individual neuron activity and cortex-wide dynamics. Neurons were diversely coupled to distal areas, and locomotion affected how neurons in different areas coupled with distal activity.

    • Kelly B. Clancy
    • , Ivana Orsolic
    •  & Thomas D. Mrsic-Flogel
  • News & Views |

    Astrocytes are emerging as causal or modulating factors in diverse neurological disorders. Two papers published in Nature Neuroscience in 2007 revealed astrocytes as causally contributing to motor neuron loss in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, thereby challenging the longstanding neuron-centric view of neurodegenerative disease.

    • Shane A. Liddelow
    •  & Michael V. Sofroniew
  • Brief Communication |

    Park et al. demonstrate in vivo the efficacy of Cas9 nanocomplexes as therapeutic agents in mouse models of Alzheimer’s disease. This strategy may be applicable to the treatment of a broad range of neurological diseases.

    • Hanseul Park
    • , Jungju Oh
    • , Gayong Shim
    • , Byounggook Cho
    • , Yujung Chang
    • , Siyoung Kim
    • , Soonbong Baek
    • , Hongwon Kim
    • , Jeain Shin
    • , Hwan Choi
    • , Junsang Yoo
    • , Junyeop Kim
    • , Won Jun
    • , Minhyung Lee
    • , Christopher J Lengner
    • , Yu-Kyoung Oh
    •  & Jongpil Kim
  • Resource |

    The lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) regulates fundamental aspects of innate behavior. However, the circuit-level underpinnings of LHA function are poorly understood given its cellular heterogeneity. Here, Mickelsen et al. employ a single-cell RNA-sequencing approach to classify molecularly distinct cell types in the mouse LHA.

    • Laura E. Mickelsen
    • , Mohan Bolisetty
    • , Brock R. Chimileski
    • , Akie Fujita
    • , Eric J. Beltrami
    • , James T. Costanzo
    • , Jacob R. Naparstek
    • , Paul Robson
    •  & Alexander C. Jackson