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  • How the brain tracks blood glucose dynamics is unclear. Viskaitis et al. show that hypothalamic orexin/hypocretin cells track glucose concentration and rate of change and that their activity is important for glucose-evoked locomotor suppression.

    • Paulius Viskaitis
    • Alexander L. Tesmer
    • Denis Burdakov
    ArticleOpen Access
  • LINE-1 retrotransposons are a type of mobile DNA element normally repressed in the body. Here the authors show that LINE-1 sequences can jump in mouse parvalbumin interneurons and also promote the transcription of key parvalbumin interneuron genes.

    • Gabriela O. Bodea
    • Juan M. Botto
    • Geoffrey J. Faulkner
    ArticleOpen Access
  • Mature myelin has been considered static, though recent evidence indicates it is in fact dynamic. Here, Osso and Hughes review the dynamics of mature myelin, a form of neuroplasticity, from myelin turnover to remodeling of myelin structure. The authors consider the mechanisms that regulate these dynamics and the functional implications of mature myelin remodeling.

    • Lindsay A. Osso
    • Ethan G. Hughes
    Review Article
  • By using genetic admixture in the multi-omic analysis of postmortem brains from Black Americans, we show that genetic ancestry influences gene expression in the brain. Notably, we find enrichment of ancestry-associated genes for immune response and vascular function, but not neuronal function. Our findings have potential implications for stroke, Parkinson’s disease and Alzheimer’s disease.

    Research Briefing
  • The increased inclusion of samples from individuals from minoritized communities in biomedical research will help to mitigate health disparities that stem from a medical enterprise founded in racism and exclusion. In this issue of Nature Neuroscience, Benjamin et al. investigate how genetic ancestry influences the expression of genes in the brain, an effort supported by community leaders who raised funding, partnered in shaping research questions and had a central role in the interpretation and communication of the study’s findings. Here, we outline the public and social context that motivated these efforts towards ensuring equitable access to the benefits of science for all.

    • Kafui Dzirasa
    • Gwenaëlle E. Thomas
    • Alvin C. Hathaway Sr
  • The circuit mechanisms underlying emotion recognition are unclear. Here, Dautan et al. show a role for a long-range feedback loop comprising somatostatin inhibitory projections from the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) to the retrosplenial cortex (RSC) and excitatory feedback projections from the RSC to the mPFC.

    • Daniel Dautan
    • Anna Monai
    • Francesco Papaleo
  • Christenson et al. describe hue-selective neurons in the fruit fly optic lobe. Using a connectomics-constrained model combined with genetic manipulations of the circuit, they show that recurrent connections are critical for hue selectivity.

    • Matthias P. Christenson
    • Alvaro Sanz Diez
    • Rudy Behnia
    ArticleOpen Access
  • It has been widely believed that a key function of sleep is to actively clear metabolites and toxins from the brain. Miao, Luo et al. show in mice that brain clearance is markedly reduced—not increased—during sleep and anesthesia.

    • Andawei Miao
    • Tianyuan Luo
    • Nicholas P. Franks
    Brief CommunicationOpen Access
  • The subcommissural organ (SCO) is a gland in the brain, and relatively little is known about its function. Zhang et al. genetically ablated SCO cells and observed severe hydrocephalus and neuronal defects. The reintroduction of SCO-derived peptides into SCO-ablated brain substantially rescued developmental defects.

    • Tingting Zhang
    • Daosheng Ai
    • Woo-ping Ge
  • Neural activity does not always lie in a low-dimensional subspace. The authors extend this classic view to show that task-relevant information is distributed across multiple covariability classes and propose a new method, sliceTCA, to disentangle them.

    • Arthur Pellegrino
    • Heike Stein
    • N. Alex Cayco-Gajic
    Technical ReportOpen Access
  • This paper shows that compulsive-like grooming in Sapap3-knockout mice can be reduced by closed-loop optogenetic stimulation of striatal interneurons based on grooming onset prediction, suggesting that adaptive stimulation may have therapeutic potential in obsessive–compulsive disorder.

    • Sirenia Lizbeth Mondragón-González
    • Christiane Schreiweis
    • Eric Burguière
    ArticleOpen Access
  • The layout of cortical systems varies across people, which is assumed to be largely due to border shifts between nearby systems. Dworetsky et al. reveal a qualitatively different variation in systems that occurs at a distance from expected locations.

    • Ally Dworetsky
    • Benjamin A. Seitzman
    • Caterina Gratton