Reviews & Analysis

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  • Many fluid biomarker findings have had low reproducibility despite initially promising results. Here, the authors review possible sources for low reproducibility of studies on fluid biomarkers for neurodegenerative diseases and suggest guidelines for the biomarker community to agree on and implement.

    • Niklas Mattsson-Carlgren
    • Sebastian Palmqvist
    • Oskar Hansson
    Perspective Open Access
  • A better understanding of how plants respond to osmotic stress could potentially help improve crop yields. Here Fàbregas et al. review the recent characterization of Raf-like kinases that act in both in ABA-dependent and -independent responses to osmotic stress.

    • Norma Fàbregas
    • Takuya Yoshida
    • Alisdair R. Fernie
    Review Article Open Access
  • Advances in our ability to manipulate genetics leads to deeper understanding of biological systems. In this Perspective, the authors argue that synthetic genomics facilitates complex modifications that open up new areas of research.

    • Alessandro L. V. Coradini
    • Cara B. Hull
    • Ian M. Ehrenreich
    Perspective Open Access
  • The IMEx consortium provides one of the largest resources of curated, experimentally verified molecular interaction data. Here, the authors review how IMEx evolved into a fundamental resource for life scientists and describe how IMEx data can support biomedical research.

    • Pablo Porras
    • Elisabet Barrera
    • Sandra Orchard
    Perspective Open Access
  • Histone H2A monoubiquitination on lysine 119 in vertebrate and lysine 118 in Drosophila (H2Aub) is an epigenomic mark usually associated with gene repression by Polycomb group factors. Here the authors review the current knowledge on the deposition and removal of H2Aub, its function in transcription and other DNA-associated processes as well as its relevance to human disease.

    • Haithem Barbour
    • Salima Daou
    • El Bachir Affar
    Review Article Open Access
  • Supported atomic clusters with precise nuclearity are intermediate states between single-atom catalysts and nanoparticles in size. Here the authors summarize and discuss synthetic strategies of supported atomic clusters with unique catalytic properties for heterogeneous reactions.

    • Hongpan Rong
    • Shufang Ji
    • Yadong Li
    Review Article Open Access
  • Marine aquaculture is widely proposed as compatible with ocean sustainability, biodiversity conservation, and human nutrition goals. In this Perspective, Belton and colleagues dispute the empirical validity of such claims and contend that the potential of marine aquaculture has been much exaggerated.

    • Ben Belton
    • David C. Little
    • Shakuntala H. Thilsted
    Perspective Open Access
  • Marine microbial activities fuel biogeochemical cycles that impact the climate, but global models do not account for the myriad physiological processes that microbes perform. Here the authors argue for a model framework that reinterprets the ocean as physics coupled to biologically-driven redox chemistry.

    • Emily J. Zakem
    • Martin F. Polz
    • Michael J. Follows
    Perspective Open Access
  • Microbot delivery devices are the latest development in attempts to overcome the systemic toxicity associated with classical chemotherapy. Here, the authors review the recent progress in the field with a focus on the clinical translation and potential of the research and give a future perspective on this topic.

    • Christine K. Schmidt
    • Mariana Medina-Sánchez
    • Oliver G. Schmidt
    Review Article Open Access
  • Discovering a sustainable route to ammonia as a fertiliser and as an energy carrier is critically important, but many recent reports on the electrochemical nitrogen reduction are false positives. Here the authors uncover the emerging experimental traps and detail protocols to reliably avoid them.

    • Jaecheol Choi
    • Bryan H. R. Suryanto
    • Alexandr N. Simonov
    Perspective Open Access
  • The accurate representation of data is essential in science communication, however, colour maps that visually distort data through uneven colour gradients or are unreadable to those with colour vision deficiency remain prevalent. Here, the authors present a simple guide for the scientific use of colour and highlight ways for the scientific community to identify and prevent the misuse of colour in science.

    • Fabio Crameri
    • Grace E. Shephard
    • Philip J. Heron
    Perspective Open Access
  • Oncogenic signalling has been historically associated with sustained cancer cell-intrinsic proliferation, however its role in promoting tumour immunoresistance has also become evident. Here, Hamarsheh and colleagues review and discuss the preclinical work on the immune modulatory effects of oncogenic KRAS and the potential clinical application.

    • Shaima’a Hamarsheh
    • Olaf Groß
    • Robert Zeiser
    Perspective Open Access
  • Reducing soil degradation and improving soil management could make an important contribute to climate change mitigation. Here the authors discuss opportunities and challenges towards implementing a global climate mitigation strategy focused on carbon sequestration in agricultural soils, and propose a framework for guiding region- and soil-specific management options.

    • W. Amelung
    • D. Bossio
    • A. Chabbi
    Perspective Open Access
  • The Human Proteome Project (HPP) was launched in 2010 to enhance accurate annotation of the genome-encoded proteome. Ten years later, the HPP releases its first blueprint of the human proteome, annotating 90% of all known proteins at high-stringency and discussing the implications of proteomics for precision medicine.

    • Subash Adhikari
    • Edouard C. Nice
    • Mark S. Baker
    Perspective Open Access
  • Biofortification is an effective means to reduce micronutrient malnutrition. Here, the authors review recent advances in biofortification and propose stacking multiple micronutrient traits into high-yielding varieties through the combination of conventional breeding and genetic engineering approaches.

    • Dominique Van Der Straeten
    • Navreet K. Bhullar
    • Howarth Bouis
    Perspective Open Access
  • Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is a cell surface enzyme previously shown to mediate SARS-CoV, and now SARS-CoV-2, entry into host cells. Here the authors review existing mouse ACE2 models expressing humanized, transgenic, knockout, knockin, conditional and reporter alleles to provide a toolbox for COVID-19 research.

    • Hongpeng Jia
    • Xinping Yue
    • Eric Lazartigues
    Review Article Open Access