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  • The causes and consequences of social intelligence are challenging to establish. A study on wild cleaner fish reports that large forebrains enable individuals to score higher in a social competence test, suggesting forebrain size is important for complex social decision-making.

    • Zegni Triki
    • Yasmin Emery
    • Redouan Bshary
    Article Open Access
  • The bacterial helicase-like transcription factor HelD associates with the RNA polymerase (RNAP) and recycles stalled transcription complexes. Here, the authors present the cryo-EM structures of three Mycobacterium smegmatis HelD bound RNAP complexes and further show that HelD can prevent the binding of the RNAP core to non-specific DNA and also actively removes RNAP from stalled elongation complexes.

    • Tomáš Kouba
    • Tomáš Koval’
    • Libor Krásný
    Article Open Access
  • The authors present a method for calculating the accuracy of an NMR structure, where flexibility from backbone chemical shifts is compared to structural flexibility predicted using rigidity theory. The authors validate their method and use it to compare the accuracy of NMR and X-ray structures.

    • Nicholas J. Fowler
    • Adnan Sljoka
    • Mike P. Williamson
    Article Open Access
  • The bacterial helicase-like transcription factor HelD interacts with the RNA polymerase (RNAP) and together with the RNAP δ subunit enhances RNAP cycling. Here, the authors present the cryo-EM structures of the monomeric and dimeric Bacillus subtilis RNAP-δ-HelD complexes and suggest a model for HelD/δ-mediated RNAP recycling and putative hibernation.

    • Hao-Hong Pei
    • Tarek Hilal
    • Markus C. Wahl
    Article Open Access
  • Ancient, asexual lineages are rare as a lack of recombination is usually an evolutionary dead end. Here, authors compare complete genomes of 11 individual bdelloid rotifers that suggest evidence of regular genetic exchange between individuals in a species that was previously thought to be asexual.

    • Olga A. Vakhrusheva
    • Elena A. Mnatsakanova
    • Alexey S. Kondrashov
    Article Open Access
  • Gram-positive bacteria contain a transcription factor HelD that is able to remove and recycle stalled transcription complexes. Here the authors provide mechanistic insights into this process by determining the cryo-EM structures of the Bacillus subtilis RNA polymerase (RNAP) elongation complex and the RNAP-HelD transcription recycling complex and propose a model of HelD catalysed transcription recycling.

    • Timothy P. Newing
    • Aaron J. Oakley
    • Peter J. Lewis
    Article Open Access
  • Encasing a single atom within a fullerene (C60) cage can create a robustly packaged single atomic spin system. Here, the authors perform electron paramagnetic resonance on a single encased spin using a diamond NV-center, demonstrating the first steps in controlling single spins in fullerene cages.

    • Dinesh Pinto
    • Domenico Paone
    • Klaus Kern
    Article Open Access
  • Promising results of cancer therapies in transplant tumor models often fail to predict efficacy in clinical trials. Here the authors show that, while transplant tumors are cured by radiotherapy and PD-1 blockade, autochthonous sarcomas are resistant to the identical treatment, recapitulating the immune landscape and resistance to checkpoint blockade observed in most sarcoma patients.

    • Amy J. Wisdom
    • Yvonne M. Mowery
    • David G. Kirsch
    Article Open Access
  • It is unclear whether body size affects community assembly mechanisms of soil biota. Here, the authors analyse soil microbial and nematode communities sampled along a 4000-km transect in China and global soil microbiome data to show that bacterial assembly is governed by high dispersal, whereas larger taxa are more influenced by deterministic processes.

    • Lu Luan
    • Yuji Jiang
    • Bo Sun
    Article Open Access
  • Muscle cells express an adhesion molecule called metavinculin, which has been associated with cardiomyopathies. Here, the authors employed molecular tension sensors to reveal that metavinculin expression modulates cell adhesion mechanics and they develop a mouse model to demonstrate that the presence of metavinculin is not as critical for heart muscle function as previously thought.

    • Verena Kanoldt
    • Carleen Kluger
    • Carsten Grashoff
    Article Open Access
  • The eukaryotic RNA Polymerase III transcribes tRNAs, some ribosomal and spliceosomal RNAs. Here, the authors resolve a cryo-EM structure of human RNA Polymerase III in its apo form and complemented it with crystal structures and SAXS analysis of RPC5, revealing insights into the molecular mechanisms of Pol III transcription.

    • Ewan Phillip Ramsay
    • Guillermo Abascal-Palacios
    • Alessandro Vannini
    Article Open Access
  • Endocannabinoid levels are controlled by the fine balance between their synthesis and degradation. Here, the authors show that memory formation through fear conditioning selectively accelerates the degradation of endocannabinoids in the cerebellum via a lasting increase in GABA release.

    • Christophe J. Dubois
    • Jessica Fawcett-Patel
    • Siqiong June Liu
    Article Open Access
  • Blood eosinophil (EOS) counts may serve as risk factors for human coronary heart diseases. Here the authors show that increased circulating and myocardial EOS after myocardial infarction play a cardioprotective role by reducing cardiomyocyte death, cardiac fibroblast activation and fibrosis, and endothelium activation-mediated inflammatory cell accumulation.

    • Jing Liu
    • Chongzhe Yang
    • Guo-Ping Shi
    Article Open Access
  • Semiconductor spin-qubits with CMOS compatible architectures could benefit from the industrial capacity of the semiconductor industry. Here, the authors make the first steps in demonstrating this by showing single electron operations within a two-dimensional array of foundry-fabricated quantum dots.

    • Fabio Ansaloni
    • Anasua Chatterjee
    • Ferdinand Kuemmeth
    Article Open Access