Review Articles

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  • In this Review article, the authors discuss emerging efforts to build ethical governance frameworks for data science health research in Africa and the opportunities to advance these through investments by African governments and institutions, international funding organizations and collaborations for research and capacity development.

    • Clement A. Adebamowo
    • Shawneequa Callier
    • Sally N. Adebamowo
    Review ArticleOpen Access
  • Geroscience is becoming a major hope for preventing age-related diseases and loss of function by targeting biological mechanisms of aging. This article reports a discussion of a research Task Force on the challenges posed by the clinical research in Geroscience so that future gerotherapeutic clinical trials can be conducted successfully.

    • Yves Rolland
    • Felipe Sierra
    • Alex Zhavoronkov
    Review ArticleOpen Access
  • Positron emission tomography is widely used to diagnose and monitor different disease states and interest in the technique has led to the demand for the development of new method for radiolabelling. Here the authors review the recent progress in the development of new PET probes.

    • Jian Rong
    • Ahmed Haider
    • Steven H. Liang
    Review ArticleOpen Access
  • Ebrahimi and Samanta review the key advances in the chemical and structural modification of proteins that have enabled their rise as indispensable tools in medicine and outline emerging protein engineering strategies that can potentially unlock structures with improved therapeutic properties.

    • Sasha B. Ebrahimi
    • Devleena Samanta
    Review ArticleOpen Access
  • The lack of a standardized approach for the characterization of the performance of 2D photodetectors represents an important obstacle towards their industrialization. Here, the authors propose practical guidelines to characterize their figures of merit and analyse common situations where their performance can be misestimated.

    • Fang Wang
    • Tao Zhang
    • Weida Hu
    Review ArticleOpen Access
  • In this Review article, the authors discuss the potential of microorganisms as a solution to the challenges faced by our food system. Engineered microorganisms can be used to produce enhanced foods and ingredients in a sustainable manner. The technical, economical, and societal limitations are also discussed together with the current and future perspectives.

    • Alicia E. Graham
    • Rodrigo Ledesma-Amaro
    Review ArticleOpen Access
  • Naturally evolved genomes tend to be unnecessarily large and redundant, and are not optimised for biotechnological or research applications. In this review, the authors explore genome minimization and re-functionalisation approaches, and discuss their potential for industrial applications.

    • Xin Xu
    • Felix Meier
    • Thomas C. Williams
    Review ArticleOpen Access
  • Zooplankton are a critical link to higher trophic levels and play an important role in global biogeochemical cycles. This Review examines key responses of zooplankton to ocean warming, highlights key knowledge and geographic gaps that need to be addressed, and discusses how better use of observations and long-term zooplankton monitoring programmes can help fill these gaps.

    • Lavenia Ratnarajah
    • Rana Abu-Alhaija
    • Lidia Yebra
    Review ArticleOpen Access
  • Here the authors summarize current knowledge of the regulation of protein stability by various post-translational modifications (PTMs) including methylation and phosphorylation. PTM-regulated degrons act as signals for protein degradation or stabilization.

    • Ji Min Lee
    • Henrik M. Hammarén
    • Sung Hee Baek
    Review ArticleOpen Access
  • CRISPR-Cas tools have shown exceptional promise in genome engineering over the past decade. Here the authors review the development of CRISPR-Cas9/Cas12/Cas13 nucleases, DNA base editors, prime editors, and RNA base editors, as well as their editing precision, off-target effects, and clinical considerations.

    • Jianli Tao
    • Daniel E. Bauer
    • Roberto Chiarle
    Review ArticleOpen Access
  • While the contribution of sharp wave ripples in memory consolidation and decision-making is established in rodent models, our understanding of their role in human memory is incomplete. Here, the authors discuss common methodological challenges in detecting, analyzing, and reporting sharp wave ripples, then they suggest practical solutions to distinguish them from other high-frequency events

    • Anli A. Liu
    • Simon Henin
    • György Buzsáki
    Review ArticleOpen Access
  • Microbots have attracted attention due to an ability to reach places and perform tasks which are not possible with conventional techniques in a wide range of applications. Here, the authors review the recent work in the field on the fabrication, application and actuation of 3D printed microbots offering a view of the direction of future microbot research.

    • Sajjad Rahmani Dabbagh
    • Misagh Rezapour Sarabi
    • Savas Tasoglu
    Review ArticleOpen Access
  • The impact of fungal infections on human health has been exacerbated by the rise of antifungal drug resistance. In this Review, the authors outline the problem of antifungal resistance and suggest how this growing threat might be mitigated.

    • Neil A. R. Gow
    • Carolyn Johnson
    • Keegan Edgar
    Review ArticleOpen Access
  • In this review, the authors look at how recent progress in single-cell transcriptomics complement and enrich the classical, largely morphological, portraits of fibroblasts. The detailed molecular information now available provides new insights into fibroblast identity, heterogeneity and function.

    • Urban Lendahl
    • Lars Muhl
    • Christer Betsholtz
    Review ArticleOpen Access
  • Large scale sustainable energy storage by water splitting benefits from performing the oxygen evolution reaction under a variety of conditions. Here, the authors discuss self-healing catalysis as a new tool in the design of stable and functionally active catalysts in acidic to basic solutions, and a variety of water sources

    • Agnes E. Thorarinsdottir
    • Samuel S. Veroneau
    • Daniel G. Nocera
    Review ArticleOpen Access