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  • Endangered polar ecosystems play critical roles in the Earth’s climate system and comprise many different habitats with unique organisms. Here, the authors propose a community road map to use multi-omics data from polar organisms for conservation, ecosystem services and societal gain.

    • M. S. Clark
    • J. I. Hoffman
    • T. Mock
    PerspectiveOpen Access
  • High pressure and low temperature are the greatest challenges faced by scientists to explore deep oceans, which remain largely unknow to us today. Li et al. review these challenges and give insight into designing soft robots, inspired by deep-sea creatures, that enable resilient operations in harsh conditions.

    • Guorui Li
    • Tuck-Whye Wong
    • Tiefeng Li
    PerspectiveOpen Access
  • The utilization of one-carbon assimilation pathways for bioproduction represents a promising direction towards a more sustainable bio-based economy. Here, the authors compare the thermodynamic efficiencies and energy demand of C1-assimilation pathways and discuss their implementation for energy, material, and food production.

    • Simone Bachleitner
    • Özge Ata
    • Diethard Mattanovich
    PerspectiveOpen Access
  • Using one carbon (C1) molecules as primary feedstock for bioproduction holds great potential for a circular and carbon neutral economy. Here, the authors discuss the potential of merging knowledge gained from natural and synthetic C1-trophic organisms to expedite the development of efficient C1-based biomanufacturing.

    • Enrico Orsi
    • Pablo Ivan Nikel
    • Stefano Donati
    PerspectiveOpen Access
  • X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) has become an indispensable tool to investigate dynamic natures of electrocatalysts. In this perspective, advanced X-ray spectroscopies are highlighted in a complementary way, providing a promising research model for solid-liquid interface and (electro)catalysis studies.

    • Jiali Wang
    • Chia-Shuo Hsu
    • Hao Ming Chen
    PerspectiveOpen Access
  • Substandard and falsified medicines are a problem, particularly in low- and middle-income countries, and effects on antimicrobial resistance development aren’t well understood. Here, the authors discuss mechanisms by which they can increase or decrease levels of resistance and the need for improved data collection and analytical approaches.

    • Sean Cavany
    • Stella Nanyonga
    • Ben S. Cooper
    PerspectiveOpen Access
  • Mechanical metamaterials are known for their unconventional mechanical properties. In this perspective, the authors give an overview of the current state of mechanical materials research and suggest a roadmap for next-generation active and responsive mechanical metamaterials.

    • Pengcheng Jiao
    • Jochen Mueller
    • Amir H. Alavi
    PerspectiveOpen Access
  • Defining and revising best practices for accurate measurements and data reliability and quality checks is a continuous effort for the commercialization of perovskite solar cells. Here, the authors discuss the systematic discrepancy between the short circuit current and integrated quantum efficiency.

    • Michael Saliba
    • Eva Unger
    • T. Jesper Jacobsson
    PerspectiveOpen Access
  • Climate model ensemble boosting can yield physically coherent storylines for record-shattering climate extremes such as the 2021 Pacific Northwest heatwave. Combining information from storyline approaches with process understanding can inform planning for future extremes of unprecedented intensity.

    • E. M. Fischer
    • U. Beyerle
    • R. Knutti
    PerspectiveOpen Access
  • Learning from human brains to build powerful computers is attractive, yet extremely challenging due to the lack of a guiding computing theory. Jaeger et al. give a perspective on a bottom-up approach to engineer unconventional computing systems, which is fundamentally different to the classical theory based on Turing machines.

    • Herbert Jaeger
    • Beatriz Noheda
    • Wilfred G. van der Wiel
    PerspectiveOpen Access
  • Polymer electrolytes are attractive candidates for rechargeable lithium metal batteries. Here, the authors give a personal reflection on the structural design of coupled and decoupled polymer electrolytes and possible routes to further enhance their performance in rechargeable batteries.

    • Ziyu Song
    • Fangfang Chen
    • Heng Zhang
    PerspectiveOpen Access
  • The design of polymers for regenerative medicine could be accelerated with the help of machine learning. Here the authors note that machine learning has been applied successfully in other areas of polymer chemistry, while highlighting that data limitations must be overcome to enable widespread adoption within polymeric biomaterials.

    • Samantha M. McDonald
    • Emily K. Augustine
    • Matthew L. Becker
    PerspectiveOpen Access
  • Increasing C storage in mineral-associated organic matter is insufficient due to diverse, environmentally specific persistent soil organic matter formation. Context-dependent management strategies highlighting the importance of particulate organic matter are necessary.

    • Gerrit Angst
    • Kevin E. Mueller
    • Carsten W. Mueller
    PerspectiveOpen Access
  • Precision environmental health leverages environmental and system-level data to understand underlying environmental causes of disease, identify biomarkers of exposure, and develop new prevention and intervention strategies. In this Perspective, the authors provide real-life illustrations of the utility of precision environmental health approaches and identify current challenges in the field.

    • Andrea Baccarelli
    • Dana C. Dolinoy
    • Cheryl Lyn Walker
    PerspectiveOpen Access
  • Fear of missing neonatal sepsis has led to early in life antibiotic administration, even without culture-proven sepsis. Here, the authors discuss the potential impact on antimicrobial resistance, and chronic disease later in life, due to effect on the developing microbiome, suggesting a factual based approach in quantifying burden of treatment in relation to the burden of disease.

    • Martin Stocker
    • Claus Klingenberg
    • Eric Giannoni
    PerspectiveOpen Access
  • Biotechnology is emerging as a promising approach to increase resilience, flexibility, and efficiency of space missions. In this Perspective, the authors outline design-scenarios and provide a techno-economic analysis of their deployment.

    • Nils J. H. Averesch
    • Aaron J. Berliner
    • Adam P. Arkin
    PerspectiveOpen Access