Articles

  • Article | | open

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) from agricultural sources is generally omitted from sulfur emission estimates despite its abundance in livestock emissions. Here, the authors show that agriculture is the most important source of sulfur in Denmark using proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry measurements of H2S.

    • Anders Feilberg
    • , Michael Jørgen Hansen
    • , Dezhao Liu
    •  & Tavs Nyord
  • Article | | open

    Cool roofs have been shown to mitigate heat in urban areas, but their impact on water conservation has not been examined. Here the authors conduct simulations with an urban canopy model to show that implementation of cool roofs in California can also reduce outdoor water consumption by up to 9%.

    • Pouya Vahmani
    •  & Andrew D. Jones
  • Article | | open

    Copper-dependent lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMOs) oxidatively cleave polysaccharides. Here the authors present a structure-function characterization of fungal LPMOs, showing that a particular LPMO cleaves xylan using a mechanism that involves an alternative copper coordination geometry.

    • T. J. Simmons
    • , K. E. H. Frandsen
    • , L. Ciano
    • , T. Tryfona
    • , N. Lenfant
    • , J. C. Poulsen
    • , L. F. L. Wilson
    • , T. Tandrup
    • , M. Tovborg
    • , K. Schnorr
    • , K. S. Johansen
    • , B. Henrissat
    • , P. H. Walton
    • , L Lo Leggio
    •  & P. Dupree
  • Article | | open

    Shape memory materials are capable of returning to their original form post-deformation, but those with high actuation performances remain scarce. Here the authors reveal that CaFe2As2 exhibits cryogenic linear shape memory behaviour with high recoverable strain and yield strength, owing to a reversible uni-axial phase transformation.

    • John T. Sypek
    • , Hang Yu
    • , Keith J. Dusoe
    • , Gil Drachuck
    • , Hetal Patel
    • , Amanda M. Giroux
    • , Alan I. Goldman
    • , Andreas Kreyssig
    • , Paul C. Canfield
    • , Sergey L. Bud’ko
    • , Christopher R. Weinberger
    •  & Seok-Woo Lee
  • Article | | open

    Methane dynamics at the interface of ice clathrate structures is expected to play a role in phenomena ranging from gas exchange to methane mobility in planetary cryospheres. Here, the authors observe extremely fast methane diffusion at the interface of the two most common clathrate hydrate structures.

    • Umbertoluca Ranieri
    • , Michael Marek Koza
    • , Werner F. Kuhs
    • , Stefan Klotz
    • , Andrzej Falenty
    • , Philippe Gillet
    •  & Livia E. Bove
  • Article | | open

    Controlled fabrication of few-atoms supported catalysts is a major challenge in the synthesis of nanomaterials. Here, the authors show a bottom-up approach to precisely synthesize platinum dimers supported on graphene, which display higher catalytic activity and stability than single atoms and nanoparticles.

    • Huan Yan
    • , Yue Lin
    • , Hong Wu
    • , Wenhua Zhang
    • , Zhihu Sun
    • , Hao Cheng
    • , Wei Liu
    • , Chunlei Wang
    • , Junjie Li
    • , Xiaohui Huang
    • , Tao Yao
    • , Jinlong Yang
    • , Shiqiang Wei
    •  & Junling Lu
  • Article | | open

    Grain boundaries are thought to significantly mediate phase transformations in nanoparticles. Here, the authors combine multichannel plasmonic nanospectroscopy and transmission Kikuchi diffraction to study the role of grain boundaries in hydriding reactions of Pd nanoparticles on a single-particle level.

    • Svetlana Alekseeva
    • , Alice Bastos da Silva Fanta
    • , Beniamino Iandolo
    • , Tomasz J. Antosiewicz
    • , Ferry Anggoro Ardy Nugroho
    • , Jakob B. Wagner
    • , Andrew Burrows
    • , Vladimir P. Zhdanov
    •  & Christoph Langhammer
  • Article | | open

    The human shelterin complex protects telomere ends from being recognized as damaged DNA sites and regulates telomere length in conjunction with telomerase. Here the authors establish the stoichiometries of human shelterin complexes of various compositions and show shelterin provides dual pathways to stimulate telomerase processivity.

    • Ci Ji Lim
    • , Arthur J. Zaug
    • , Hee Jin Kim
    •  & Thomas R. Cech
  • Article | | open

    The mTOR pathway is a key regulator of normal brain development. Here, the authors identify de novo mutations in RHEB, an mTOR activator protein, in patients with intellectual disability associated with megalencephaly and find a role for RHEB in regulating neuronal soma size and migration in vitro and in vivo.

    • M. R. F. Reijnders
    • , M. Kousi
    • , G. M. van Woerden
    • , M. Klein
    • , J. Bralten
    • , G. M. S. Mancini
    • , T. van Essen
    • , M. Proietti-Onori
    • , E. E. J. Smeets
    • , M. van Gastel
    • , A. P. A. Stegmann
    • , S. J. C. Stevens
    • , S. H. Lelieveld
    • , C. Gilissen
    • , R. Pfundt
    • , P. L. Tan
    • , T. Kleefstra
    • , B. Franke
    • , Y. Elgersma
    • , N. Katsanis
    •  & H. G. Brunner
  • Article | | open

    Upconversion nanoparticles, which do not suffer from the photophysical artifacts that limit fluorescent molecules, offer an exciting opportunity for biological super-resolution imaging. Here, Zhan et al. develop an efficient STED mechanism using optimized lanthanide upconversion nanoparticles, enabling cytoskeleton nanoscopic imaging.

    • Qiuqiang Zhan
    • , Haichun Liu
    • , Baoju Wang
    • , Qiusheng Wu
    • , Rui Pu
    • , Chao Zhou
    • , Bingru Huang
    • , Xingyun Peng
    • , Hans Ågren
    •  & Sailing He
  • Article | | open

    Sarcolipin is an inhibitor of the ATP dependent calcium pump SERCA, and is abnormally elevated in Duchenne muscular dystrophy. The authors show that reducing sarcolipin expression ameliorates skeletal muscle pathology and cardiomyopathy and extends life span in mouse models of DMD.

    • Antanina Voit
    • , Vishwendra Patel
    • , Ronald Pachon
    • , Vikas Shah
    • , Mohammad Bakhutma
    • , Erik Kohlbrenner
    • , Joseph J. McArdle
    • , Louis J. Dell’Italia
    • , Jerry R. Mendell
    • , Lai-Hua Xie
    • , Roger J. Hajjar
    • , Dongsheng Duan
    • , Diego Fraidenraich
    •  & Gopal J. Babu
  • Article | | open

    Understanding the superconductivity in topological materials is of eminent interest. Here, Guguchia et al. report temperature-dependent magnetic penetration depth in the superconducting state of T d -MoTe2 under pressure, suggesting a topologically nontrivial s +− order parameter.

    • Z. Guguchia
    • , F. von Rohr
    • , Z. Shermadini
    • , A. T. Lee
    • , S. Banerjee
    • , A. R. Wieteska
    • , C. A. Marianetti
    • , B. A. Frandsen
    • , H. Luetkens
    • , Z. Gong
    • , S. C. Cheung
    • , C. Baines
    • , A. Shengelaya
    • , G. Taniashvili
    • , A. N. Pasupathy
    • , E. Morenzoni
    • , S. J. L. Billinge
    • , A. Amato
    • , R. J. Cava
    • , R. Khasanov
    •  & Y. J. Uemura
  • Article | | open

    Tuning the ratio of facets in materials can affect catalytic activity but methods to achieve this can be difficult to control. Here, using surfactants during dealloying, the authors prepare nanoporous gold with controlled facet ratios and show how it can significantly improve electrocatalytic activity.

    • Zhili Wang
    • , Pan Liu
    • , Jiuhui Han
    • , Chun Cheng
    • , Shoucong Ning
    • , Akihiko Hirata
    • , Takeshi Fujita
    •  & Mingwei Chen
  • Article | | open

    Although the locus at 3p13-14 is commonly deleted in prostate cancer, the identity of the potential driver genes is still unclear. Here, the authors, using a PTEN loss-driven prostate cancer mouse model, show that a multigenic FOXP1-SHQ1 deletion is a driver event with prognostic value.

    • Haley Hieronymus
    • , Phillip J. Iaquinta
    • , John Wongvipat
    • , Anuradha Gopalan
    • , Rajmohan Murali
    • , Ninghui Mao
    • , Brett S. Carver
    •  & Charles L. Sawyers
  • Article | | open

    Land use and land cover change has led to more frequent hot, dry summers in parts of the mid-latitudes. Here the authors use an Earth system model to show that regions converted to crops and pastures experience hot, dry summers 2 to 4 times more frequently than they would if native forests had remained.

    • Kirsten L. Findell
    • , Alexis Berg
    • , Pierre Gentine
    • , John P. Krasting
    • , Benjamin R. Lintner
    • , Sergey Malyshev
    • , Joseph A. Santanello Jr.
    •  & Elena Shevliakova
  • Article | | open

    Controlling mechanical motions in solid state devices is highly desirable for the development of nanoscale machines. Here, Kepert and colleagues exploit an ultra-flexible coordination framework in which thermally-controlled Fe(II) spin transitions result in remarkable flexing of the crystal lattice.

    • Benjamin R. Mullaney
    • , Laurence Goux-Capes
    • , David J. Price
    • , Guillaume Chastanet
    • , Jean-François Létard
    •  & Cameron J. Kepert
  • Article | | open

    Torsade de Pointes (TdP) is a life-threatening ventricular arrhythmia often caused by drugs. In response to an urgent need for human tissue TdP models, here the authors describe a 3D human iPS cell-engineered heart tissue that generates TdP in response to drugs, providing a suitable model for studies of TdP mechanism and drug toxicity.

    • Masahide Kawatou
    • , Hidetoshi Masumoto
    • , Hiroyuki Fukushima
    • , Gaku Morinaga
    • , Ryuzo Sakata
    • , Takashi Ashihara
    •  & Jun K. Yamashita
  • Article | | open

    Boosting of maternal antibodies against RSV is a potential approach to protect infants from severe infection, but data from animal models is missing. Here Steff et al. test two different boosts in seropositive cattle pre-exposed to bovine RSV and show that pre-fusion F strongly boosts neutralizing responses.

    • Ann-Muriel Steff
    • , James Monroe
    • , Kristian Friedrich
    • , Sumana Chandramouli
    • , Thi Lien-Anh Nguyen
    • , Sai Tian
    • , Sarah Vandepaer
    • , Jean-François Toussaint
    •  & Andrea Carfi
  • Article | | open

    Although protein tyrosine kinases are being explored as antifibrotic agents for the treatment of systemic sclerosis, little is known about the function of counteractive protein tyrosine phosphatases in this context. Here, the authors show that PTP4A1 is highly expressed by fibroblasts from patients with systemic sclerosis and promotes TGFβ activity via SRC–ERK–SMAD3 signaling.

    • Cristiano Sacchetti
    • , Yunpeng Bai
    • , Stephanie M. Stanford
    • , Paola Di Benedetto
    • , Paola Cipriani
    • , Eugenio Santelli
    • , Sonsoles Piera-Velazquez
    • , Vladimir Chernitskiy
    • , William B. Kiosses
    • , Arnold Ceponis
    • , Klaus H. Kaestner
    • , Francesco Boin
    • , Sergio A. Jimenez
    • , Roberto Giacomelli
    • , Zhong-Yin Zhang
    •  & Nunzio Bottini
  • Article | | open

    Water and ammonia are major constituents of icy planet interiors, however their phase behaviour under extreme conditions remain relatively unknown. Here, the authors show that ammonia monohydrate transforms under pressure into an alloy composed of molecules as well as ions, owing to a topological frustration.

    • C. Liu
    • , A. Mafety
    • , J. A. Queyroux
    • , C. W. Wilson
    • , H. Zhang
    • , K. Béneut
    • , G. Le Marchand
    • , B. Baptiste
    • , P. Dumas
    • , G. Garbarino
    • , F. Finocchi
    • , J. S. Loveday
    • , F. Pietrucci
    • , A. M. Saitta
    • , F. Datchi
    •  & S. Ninet
  • Article | | open

    Biochar promotes plant growth via a slow release of nutrients; however, a mechanistic understanding of nutrient storage in biochar is lacking. Here, using high-resolution spectromicroscopy and mass spectrometry, the authors identify an organic coating on co-composted particles that enhances nutrient retention.

    • Nikolas Hagemann
    • , Stephen Joseph
    • , Hans-Peter Schmidt
    • , Claudia I. Kammann
    • , Johannes Harter
    • , Thomas Borch
    • , Robert B. Young
    • , Krisztina Varga
    • , Sarasadat Taherymoosavi
    • , K. Wade Elliott
    • , Amy McKenna
    • , Mihaela Albu
    • , Claudia Mayrhofer
    • , Martin Obst
    • , Pellegrino Conte
    • , Alba Dieguez-Alonso
    • , Silvia Orsetti
    • , Edisson Subdiaga
    • , Sebastian Behrens
    •  & Andreas Kappler
  • Article | | open

    PERK stress signaling is an important driver of cancer invasion and metastasis, but chemical inhibitors of PERK cause side effects. Here, the authors find that CREB3L1 is required for PERK's pro-metastatic function in breast cancer, and its inhibition suppresses cancer invasion and metastasis.

    • Yu-Xiong Feng
    • , Dexter X. Jin
    • , Ethan S. Sokol
    • , Ferenc Reinhardt
    • , Daniel H. Miller
    •  & Piyush B. Gupta
  • Article | | open

    Geometric phase is of fundamental interest and has practical application in quantum computation. Here the authors observe continuous-variable geometric phase in a superconducting circuit and demonstrate a multi-qubit controlled phase gate protocol based on this geometric effect.

    • Chao Song
    • , Shi-Biao Zheng
    • , Pengfei Zhang
    • , Kai Xu
    • , Libo Zhang
    • , Qiujiang Guo
    • , Wuxin Liu
    • , Da Xu
    • , Hui Deng
    • , Keqiang Huang
    • , Dongning Zheng
    • , Xiaobo Zhu
    •  & H. Wang
  • Article | | open

    The impacts of carbon capture and storage (CCS) on subsurface microorganisms are poorly understood. Here, the authors show that deep ecosystems respond quickly to CO2 injections and that the environmental consequences of their metabolic activities need to be properly assessed for sustainable CCS in basalt.

    • Rosalia Trias
    • , Bénédicte Ménez
    • , Paul le Campion
    • , Yvan Zivanovic
    • , Léna Lecourt
    • , Aurélien Lecoeuvre
    • , Philippe Schmitt-Kopplin
    • , Jenny Uhl
    • , Sigurður R. Gislason
    • , Helgi A. Alfreðsson
    • , Kiflom G. Mesfin
    • , Sandra Ó. Snæbjörnsdóttir
    • , Edda S. Aradóttir
    • , Ingvi Gunnarsson
    • , Juerg M. Matter
    • , Martin Stute
    • , Eric H. Oelkers
    •  & Emmanuelle Gérard
  • Article | | open

    Efficient measurement of orbital angular momentum spectra presents open challenges. Here, the authors demonstrate a highly-efficient interferometric technique in which the OAM-spectrum information is encoded in the azimuthal intensity profile of the output interferogram.

    • Girish Kulkarni
    • , Rishabh Sahu
    • , Omar S. Magaña-Loaiza
    • , Robert W. Boyd
    •  & Anand K. Jha