Edge channels of broken-symmetry quantum Hall states in graphene visualized by atomic force microscopy

Quantum Hall edge states, topologically protected states providing ‘runways’ for charge carries, are visualized in graphene by atomic force microscopy.

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Subjects within Physical sciences

  • Ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is one of the most important environmental health risk factors in many regions. Here, the authors present an assessment of PM2.5 emission sources and the related health impacts across global to sub-national scales and find that over 1 million deaths were avoidable in 2017 by eliminating PM2.5 mass associated with fossil fuel combustion emissions.

    • Erin E. McDuffie
    • Randall V. Martin
    • Michael Brauer
    Article Open Access
  • The role of meteorological factors in SARS-COV-2 transmission is not well understood. Here, the authors use county-level data from the United States to the end of 2020 and find evidence of a moderate association between increased transmissibility and cold, dry weather and low ultraviolet radiation.

    • Yiqun Ma
    • Sen Pei
    • Kai Chen
    Article Open Access
  • It is unclear whether climate driven phenological shifts of tundra plants are consistent across the plant growing season. Here the authors analyse data from a network of field warming experiments in Arctic and alpine tundra, finding that warming differentially affects the timing and duration of reproductive and vegetative phenology.

    • Courtney G. Collins
    • Sarah C. Elmendorf
    • Katharine N. Suding
    Article Open Access
  • Superbolts are powerful, rare lightning events. Here, the authors show simultaneous satellite and ground measurements of a superbolt, and demonstrate different properties of superbolts and lightnings.

    • J.-F. Ripoll
    • T. Farges
    • S. Pédeboy
    Article Open Access
  • Why Earth’s crust only started becoming widely preserved in the Eoarchaean, 500 Ma after planetary accretion, is poorly understood. Here, the authors document a shift to juvenile magmatic sources in the early Eoarchaean, linking crustal preservation to the formation of stabilising melt-depleted mantle.

    • Jacob A. Mulder
    • Oliver Nebel
    • Timothy J. Ivanic
    Article Open Access

Subjects within Earth and environmental sciences

  • Longhua Shui Mi (LHSM) is a representative of the Chinese Cling peaches that have been central in global peach genetic improvement. Here, the authors assemble the genome of LHSM and show convergent selection for sweetness yet divergent selection for acidity in eastern vs. western cultivars through population genomics analyses.

    • Yang Yu
    • Jiantao Guan
    • Hua Xie
    Article Open Access
  • People can infer unobserved causes of perceptual data (e.g. the contents of a box from the sound made by shaking it). Here the authors show that children compare what they hear with what they would have heard given other causes, and explore longer when the heard and imagined sounds are hard to discriminate.

    • Max H. Siegel
    • Rachel W. Magid
    • Laura E. Schulz
    Article Open Access
  • High-resolution cryo-EM structures and biochemical analyses of the human mitoribosome, in complex with mitochondria-specific factors mediating mitoribosome recycling, RRFmt and EF-G2mt, offer insight into mechanisms of mitoribosome recycling and resistance to antibiotic fusidic acid.

    • Ravi Kiran Koripella
    • Ayush Deep
    • Rajendra K. Agrawal
    Article Open Access
  • Directed evolution commonly relies on point mutations but InDels frequently occur in evolution. Here the authors report a protein-engineering framework based on InDel mutagenesis and fragment transplantation resulting in greater catalysis and longer glow-type bioluminescence of the ancestral luciferase.

    • Andrea Schenkmayerova
    • Gaspar P. Pinto
    • Jiri Damborsky
    Article Open Access

Subjects within Biological sciences

  • The role of meteorological factors in SARS-COV-2 transmission is not well understood. Here, the authors use county-level data from the United States to the end of 2020 and find evidence of a moderate association between increased transmissibility and cold, dry weather and low ultraviolet radiation.

    • Yiqun Ma
    • Sen Pei
    • Kai Chen
    Article Open Access
  • Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cell therapy has been proposed as a promising approach for treating glioblastoma. Here the authors show that p32 is expressed in murine and human glioma and that p32-directed CAR-T cells promote anti-tumor responses in preclinical models by targeting glioma cells and tumor derived endothelial cells.

    • Liat Rousso-Noori
    • Ignacio Mastandrea
    • Dinorah Friedmann-Morvinski
    Article Open Access
  • Deer mice are natural hosts for a number of human pathogens. Here, Griffin et al. report that intranasal exposure of the North American deer mouse to SARS-CoV-2 results in virus replication and shedding, despite causing only mild or asymptomatic illness. Additionally, infected deer mice can transmit SARS-CoV-2 to naïve deer mice.

    • Bryan D. Griffin
    • Mable Chan
    • Darwyn Kobasa
    Article Open Access

Subjects within Health sciences

  • Here, the authors examine how altruism can emerge as people come to trust a public institution of moral assessment, which broadcasts whether individuals have good or bad reputations for reciprocity.

    • Arunas L. Radzvilavicius
    • Taylor A. Kessinger
    • Joshua B. Plotkin
    Article Open Access
  • Here, the authors survey neuroscience publications from Africa over the past two decades, highlighting areas of active research, international networks, funding, and techniques used.

    • M. B. Maina
    • U. Ahmad
    • T. Baden
    Article Open Access
  • Tree rings are a crucial archive for Common Era climate reconstructions, but the degree to which methodological decisions influence outcomes is not well known. Here, the authors show how different approaches taken by 15 different groups influence the ensemble temperature reconstruction from the same data.

    • Ulf Büntgen
    • Kathy Allen
    • Jan Esper
    Article Open Access
  • Here, the authors show that an integrative thinking process linked philosophically to wisdom may reduce group polarization. Specifically, wise reasoning improves intergroup attitudes and behavior even at time of heightened societal conflicts.

    • Justin P. Brienza
    • Franki Y. H. Kung
    • Melody M. Chao
    Article Open Access
  • Ride-sharing, combining similar concurrent trips into one, may support sustainable urban mobility yet lacks broad adoption. Storch et al. reveal how collective interactions in shared rides explain essential characteristics of ride-sharing adoption patterns e.g. observed in New York City and Chicago.

    • David-Maximilian Storch
    • Marc Timme
    • Malte Schröder
    Article Open Access

Subjects within Scientific community and society

  • The fast-growing interest for two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterials is undermined by their natural restacking tendency, which severely limits their practical application. Novel porous heterostructures that coordinate 2D nanosheets with monolayered mesoporous scaffolds offer an opportunity to greatly expand the library of advanced materials suitable for electrochemical energy storage technologies.

    • Jie Wang
    • Victor Malgras
    • Yusuke Yamauchi
    Comment Open Access
  • Water ice exists in hugely different environments, artificially or naturally occurring ones across the universe. The phase diagram of crystalline phases of ice is still under construction: a high-pressure phase, ice XIX, has just been reported but its structure remains ambiguous.

    • Thomas C. Hansen
    Comment Open Access
  • Proteins and peptides are amongst the most widely used research reagents but often their quality is inadequate and can result in poor data reproducibility. Here we propose a simple set of guidelines that, when correctly applied to protein reagents should provide more reliable experimental data.

    • Ario de Marco
    • Nick Berrow
    • Bertrand Raynal
    Comment Open Access
  • Opportunities for early career researchers (ECRs) to engage with the peer review and publication process can be few and far between. Last year, we launched a pilot support programme to introduce ECRs to peer review.

    Editorial Open Access
  • The year 2020 brought unprecedented challenges, and opportunities to reassess and reaffirm our values. As our anniversary year draws to a close, we reflect on achievements and areas for improvement.

    Editorial Open Access
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This page provides a snapshot of some of the most exciting work published in the broad areas of catalysis, including catalyst synthesis, catalytic characterization, mechanism, computational and theoretical catalysis, electrocatalysis, photocatalysis, environmental catalysis, asymmetric catalysis, organocatalysis, and enzymatic catalysis.
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