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The rapid evolution of durophagy in lungfish

Xindong Cui et al. describe exceptionally preserved fossils of lungfish (air-breathing fish) from the Early Devonian that show early adaptations to durophagy, or the consumption of hard-shelled prey.

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  • The development of non-invasive, rapid responsive phosphorescence is highly desirable but has rarely been described. Herein, the authors designed and prepare a series of molecular rotors containing a room temperature phosphorescence active triazine core and three bromobiphenyl units acting as rotors and demonstrate light stimulus triggered phosphorescence.

    • Xing Wang Liu
    • Weijun Zhao
    • Ben Zhong Tang
    Article Open Access
  • The study of the mechanical properties of twisted van der Waals structures can provide important information about their interlayer coupling and electronic behaviour. Here, the authors report a nanoindentation-based technique to determine the interlayer shear stress in bilayer MoS2, showing its independence as a function of the twist angle.

    • Yufei Sun
    • Yujia Wang
    • Kai Liu
    Article Open Access
  • Despite the importance of unsymmetrical disulfides in various fields such as food chemistry, pharmaceutical industry, and polymer science, the nondirected intermolecular disulfuration of C-H bonds remains challenging. Here, the authors report the conversion of aliphatic C(sp3)-H bonds and aldehydic C(sp2)-H bonds into the corresponding C-SS bonds with tetrasulfides (RSSSSR) as radical disulfuration reagents.

    • Jingjing Zhang
    • Armido Studer
    Article Open Access
  • The simultaneous achievement of high breakdown voltage and low resistance is a contradictory point because it would require high and low doping simultaneously. Here, Zhou et al. achieve a power figure-of-merit of 13.2 GW/cm2 through hole injection and conductivity modulation effect.

    • Jincheng Zhang
    • Pengfei Dong
    • Yue Hao
    Article Open Access

Subjects within Physical sciences

  • The roles of marine plastisphere in global nitrogen cycling are largely unknown. Here, the authors indicate that the plastisphere could act as a potential source of N2O production, which is mainly regulated by the biotic denitrification

    • Xiaoxuan Su
    • Leyang Yang
    • Yong-guan Zhu
    Article Open Access
  • The causes of long-lasting behaviors of multi-year El Niño are still not fully understood. Here, the authors find that persistent two-way teleconnections between the North Pacific Oscillation and the tropical Pacific constitute a key source of multi-year El Niño.

    • Ruiqiang Ding
    • Yu‐Heng Tseng
    • Feifei Li
    Article Open Access
  • Shrub encroachment trends are widespread yet complex. Here the authors demonstrate that not considering dispersal and fire leads to overestimating shrub expansion in Arctic tundra and therefore its role as carbon sink.

    • Yanlan Liu
    • William J. Riley
    • Margaret S. Torn
    Article Open Access

Subjects within Earth and environmental sciences

Subjects within Biological sciences

  • The whipworm Trichuris trichiura is a soil-transmitted helminth that causes the neglected tropical disease trichuriasis in humans. Here, the authors produce whole genome sequences of modern and ancient samples from humans and non-human primates to characterise the genomic diversity and evolution of this pathogen.

    • Stephen R. Doyle
    • Martin Jensen Søe
    • Christian Moliin Outzen Kapel
    Article Open Access
  • Monomethyl auristatin (MMAE), also known for its radiosensitizer properties, is a common antibody drug conjugate used for cancer therapy. Here the authors show that, in combination with radiotherapy, tumor-directed antibodies or peptides conjugated to MMAE promote anti-tumor immune responses, improving response to checkpoint inhibitors in preclinical cancer models.

    • Dina V. Hingorani
    • Michael M. Allevato
    • Sunil J. Advani
    Article Open Access
  • Estimating the effectiveness of malaria vector control interventions has typically relied on resource-intensive cluster randomised trials. Here, the authors estimate changes in malaria prevalence using entomological data from experimental hut trials, which may provide an alternative route to approval of interventions in some situations.

    • Ellie Sherrard-Smith
    • Corine Ngufor
    • Thomas S. Churcher
    Article Open Access

Subjects within Health sciences

Subjects within Scientific community and society

  • Why do males typically compete more intensely for mating opportunities than do females and how does this relate to sex differences in gamete size? A new study provides a formal evolutionary link between gamete size dimorphism and ‘Bateman gradients’, which describe how much individuals of each sex benefit from additional matings.

    • Jonathan M. Henshaw
    • Adam G. Jones
    • Lukas Schärer
    Comment Open Access
  • Chemical probes are selective small-molecule modulators, usually inhibitors, of their target protein’s function, that can be used in cell or even animal studies to interrogate the functions of their target proteins. Cheryl Arrowsmith, the leader of a new initiative called Target 2035, which seeks to identify a pharmacological modulator for most human proteins by the year 2035, and Paul Workman, the Executive Director of the nonprofit Chemical Probes Portal, an online resource dedicated to chemical probes, talked to Nature Communications about chemical probes, their respective paths to leadership positions in the field, the online resources available to those interested in the topic and the promise and value of open — collaborative — science. The below material is a modified transcript of a long discussion, preserving the conversational tone, but streamlined and edited for clarity, and thus we do not attribute the particular parts to Cheryl or Paul specifically except for when they shared their personal experiences.

    Q&A Open Access
  • Flooding is a pervasive natural hazard, with new research demonstrating that more than one in five people around the world live in areas directly exposed to 1-in-100 year flood risk. Exposure to such flood risk is particularly concentrated amongst lower income households worldwide.

    • Thomas K. J. McDermott
    Comment Open Access
  • Our peer review programme was launched in 2020 to support Early Career Researchers in building confidence to participate in peer review. The initiative has proved very successful and popular with both ECRs and editors and we are pleased to invite applicants to apply to our 2022 programme.

    Editorial Open Access
  • Habitability of exoplanet’s deepest oceans could be limited by the presence of high-pressure ices at their base. New work demonstrates that efficient chemical transport within deep planetary ice mantles is possible through significant salt incorporation within the high-pressure ice.

    • Baptiste Journaux
    Comment Open Access
  • Diagonal integration of multimodal single-cell data emerges as a trending topic. However, empowering diagonal methods for novel biological discoveries requires bridging huge gaps. Here, we comment on potential risks and future directions of diagonal integration for multimodal single-cell data.

    • Yang Xu
    • Rachel Patton McCord
    Comment Open Access
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