The rapid evolution of durophagy in lungfish

Xindong Cui et al. describe exceptionally preserved fossils of lungfish (air-breathing fish) from the Early Devonian that show early adaptations to durophagy, or the consumption of hard-shelled prey.


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  • In contrast with well-established dearomatization protocols such as the Birch reduction, sigmatropic rearrangement-based dearomatizations are a less-explored but potentially effective route to saturated compounds. Here, the authors show a [5,5]-rearrangement-enabled dearomatization of aryl sulfoxides.

    • Mengjie Hu
    • Yanping Liu
    • Bo Peng
    Article Open Access
  • In network systems governed by oscillatory activity, such as brain networks or power grids, configurations of synchrony may define network functions. The authors introduce a control approach for the formation of desired synchrony patterns through optimal interventions on the network parameters.

    • Tommaso Menara
    • Giacomo Baggio
    • Fabio Pasqualetti
    Article Open Access
  • Iridoid compounds are an important class of natural products. Here, the authors report on the discovery and engineering of nepetalactol-related short chain reductases and their application for the biosynthesis of nepetalactol or nepetalactone stereoisomers, as a versatile system for the production of the iridoid natural product scaffold.

    • Néstor J. Hernández Lozada
    • Benke Hong
    • Sarah E. O’Connor
    Article Open Access

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  • Marine protected areas are proposed to protect elasmobranchs (sharks, skates, and rays) but the fishing impact from small-scale fisheries in these areas is unknown. From 1256 fishing operations carried out in partially protected and unprotected areas in six Mediterranean countries, this study shows that catches were higher in partially protected areas than in unprotected areas, indicating poor small-scale fisheries management as a threat for these species.

    • Manfredi Di Lorenzo
    • Antonio Calò
    • Paolo Guidetti
    Article Open Access
  • By measuring the thermal properties of eclogite at high pressures, the authors found that temperature of orogenic continental crust is sufficient to melt granite and phengite, leading to low-velocity and high-conductivity anomalies in orogenic belts.

    • Baohua Zhang
    • Hongzhan Fei
    • Qunke Xia
    Article Open Access
  • Coronaviruses may spill over from bats to humans. This study uses epidemiological data, species distribution models, and probabilistic risk assessment to map overlap among people and SARSr-CoV bat hosts and estimate how many people are infected with bat-origin SARSr-CoVs in Southeast Asia annually.

    • Cecilia A. Sánchez
    • Hongying Li
    • Peter Daszak
    Article Open Access

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  • The optoelectronic performance of wide-bandgap semiconductors often cannot compete with that of their defect-tolerant small-bandgap counterpart. Here, the authors outline three main challenges to overcome for mitigating the impact of defects in wide-bandgap semiconductors.

    • Alex M. Ganose
    • David O. Scanlon
    • Robert L. Z. Hoye
    Comment Open Access
  • To highlight and support research in the important area of child health, the editors at Nature Communications and Communications Medicine invite submissions to a collection of papers on this subject, including infectious diseases, cancer, and neurodevelopment and neurodiversity.

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  • We reflect on the extent to which the UK Events Research Programme adhered to four principles of design and evaluation in assessing risk of transmission from attending such mass events as football matches and festivals, and lessons learned.

    • Theresa M. Marteau
    • Michael J. Parker
    • W. John Edmunds
    Comment Open Access
  • A plethora of work has shown that AI systems can systematically and unfairly be biased against certain populations in multiple scenarios. The field of medical imaging, where AI systems are beginning to be increasingly adopted, is no exception. Here we discuss the meaning of fairness in this area and comment on the potential sources of biases, as well as the strategies available to mitigate them. Finally, we analyze the current state of the field, identifying strengths and highlighting areas of vacancy, challenges and opportunities that lie ahead.

    • María Agustina Ricci Lara
    • Rodrigo Echeveste
    • Enzo Ferrante
    Comment Open Access
  • Kv3 channels enable neurons to fire at very high frequencies (>100 Hz) which is fundamental to brain development and our ability to make sense of the world at large. Cryo-EM and structure-function studies by Chi et al. now uncover Kv3 channel gating mechanisms and support new precision medicine approaches for CNS diseases.

    • Martin J. Gunthorpe
    Comment Open Access


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