Jiří Pospíšil et al.

Bacterial nanotubes as a manifestation of cell death

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Physical sciences

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Earth and environmental sciences

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  • Article
    | Open Access

    Solar insolation is not equally distributed on the Earth’s surface and such imbalances influence the atmospheric circulation. Here, the authors show that latitudinal insolation gradients synchronized the hydroclimate in the Northern mid-latitudes and the African and South American Monsoons throughout the Holocene.

    • Michael Deininger
    • , Frank McDermott
    • , Francisco W. Cruz
    • , Juan Pablo Bernal
    • , Manfred Mudelsee
    • , Hubert Vonhof
    • , Christian Millo
    • , Christoph Spötl
    • , Pauline C. Treble
    • , Robyn Pickering
    •  & Denis Scholz
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Microwear patterns on teeth can be used to infer diet as different foods leave different marks. Here, Bestwick and colleagues analyse microwear from the teeth of pterosaurs—extinct flying reptiles colloquially known as “pterodactyls”—to reconstruct their dietary diversity and evolution.

    • Jordan Bestwick
    • , David M. Unwin
    • , Richard J. Butler
    •  & Mark A. Purnell
  • Perspective
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    Reducing soil degradation and improving soil management could make an important contribute to climate change mitigation. Here the authors discuss opportunities and challenges towards implementing a global climate mitigation strategy focused on carbon sequestration in agricultural soils, and propose a framework for guiding region- and soil-specific management options.

    • W. Amelung
    • , D. Bossio
    • , W. de Vries
    • , I. Kögel-Knabner
    • , J. Lehmann
    • , R. Amundson
    • , R. Bol
    • , C. Collins
    • , R. Lal
    • , J. Leifeld
    • , B. Minasny
    • , G. Pan
    • , K. Paustian
    • , C. Rumpel
    • , J. Sanderman
    • , J. W. van Groenigen
    • , S. Mooney
    • , B. van Wesemael
    • , M. Wander
    •  & A. Chabbi

Biological sciences

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    Human Microrchidia 4 (MORC4) ATPase has been implicated in acute and chronic pancreatitis, inflammatory disorders and cancer. Here the authors describe the structure–function relationship of MORC4 and define the molecular mechanism for MORC4 activation.

    • Adam H. Tencer
    • , Khan L. Cox
    • , Gregory M. Wright
    • , Yi Zhang
    • , Christopher J. Petell
    • , Brianna J. Klein
    • , Brian D. Strahl
    • , Joshua C. Black
    • , Michael G. Poirier
    •  & Tatiana G. Kutateladze
  • Article
    | Open Access

    ZBTB11 mutations have been identified in patients with intellectual disability and morphological brain and neuromuscular defects, although the etiology was unknown. Here, the authors demonstrate that ZBTB11 regulates mitochondrial function by facilitating NRF-2-mediated activation of complex I and mitoribosome genes.

    • Brooke C. Wilson
    • , Lena Boehme
    • , Ambra Annibali
    • , Alan Hodgkinson
    • , Thomas S. Carroll
    • , Rebecca J. Oakey
    •  & Vlad C. Seitan

Health sciences

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  • Article
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    Resistance to BRAF/MEK inhibitors is a major impediment to long-term survival for patients with BRAF-mutant melanomas. Here, the authors show that ABL kinases drive resistance by promoting MEK/ERK reactivation and the FDA-approved ABL kinase inhibitor nilotinib prevents and overcomes resistance.

    • Rakshamani Tripathi
    • , Zulong Liu
    • , Aditi Jain
    • , Anastasia Lyon
    • , Christina Meeks
    • , Dana Richards
    • , Jinpeng Liu
    • , Daheng He
    • , Chi Wang
    • , Marika Nespi
    • , Andrey Rymar
    • , Peng Wang
    • , Melissa Wilson
    •  & Rina Plattner
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Understanding how SARS-CoV-2 gains initial entry into the human body is a key step towards the development of prophylaxes and therapeutics for COVID-19. Here, the authors show that ACE2, the receptor for SARS-CoV-2, is abundantly expressed in the motile cilia of the human nasal and respiratory tract and is not affected by the use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin II receptor blockers.

    • Ivan T. Lee
    • , Tsuguhisa Nakayama
    • , Chien-Ting Wu
    • , Yury Goltsev
    • , Sizun Jiang
    • , Phillip A. Gall
    • , Chun-Kang Liao
    • , Liang-Chun Shih
    • , Christian M. Schürch
    • , David R. McIlwain
    • , Pauline Chu
    • , Nicole A. Borchard
    • , David Zarabanda
    • , Sachi S. Dholakia
    • , Angela Yang
    • , Dayoung Kim
    • , Han Chen
    • , Tomoharu Kanie
    • , Chia-Der Lin
    • , Ming-Hsui Tsai
    • , Katie M. Phillips
    • , Raymond Kim
    • , Jonathan B. Overdevest
    • , Matthew A. Tyler
    • , Carol H. Yan
    • , Chih-Feng Lin
    • , Yi-Tsen Lin
    • , Da-Tian Bau
    • , Gregory J. Tsay
    • , Zara M. Patel
    • , Yung-An Tsou
    • , Alexandar Tzankov
    • , Matthias S. Matter
    • , Chih-Jaan Tai
    • , Te-Huei Yeh
    • , Peter H. Hwang
    • , Garry P. Nolan
    • , Jayakar V. Nayak
    •  & Peter K. Jackson
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Cardiac dysfunction is a major complication that precedes death after scorpion envenomation. Here, authors show that heart failure and mortality are caused by excessive acetylcholine release, which requires IL-1R-dependent PGE2 production. Dexamethasone treatment effectively inhibits cardiac dysfunction and mortality.

    • Mouzarllem B. Reis
    • , Fernanda L. Rodrigues
    • , Natalia Lautherbach
    • , Alexandre Kanashiro
    • , Carlos A. Sorgi
    • , Alyne F. G. Meirelles
    • , Carlos A. A. Silva
    • , Karina F. Zoccal
    • , Camila O. S. Souza
    • , Simone G. Ramos
    • , Alessandra K. Matsuno
    • , Lenaldo B. Rocha
    • , Helio C. Salgado
    • , Luiz C. C. Navegantes
    • , Ísis C. Kettelhut
    • , Palmira Cupo
    • , Luiz G. Gardinassi
    •  & Lúcia H. Faccioli

News & Comment

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    Low-temperature carbon dioxide electrolysis is an attractive process for sustainable fuel synthesis, but current systems suffer from low efficiency. In this comment, authors discuss the limitations arising from the reaction between carbon dioxide and hydroxide, highlighting the need for new research to address this fundamental problem.

    • Joshua A. Rabinowitz
    •  & Matthew W. Kanan
  • Comment
    | Open Access

    The human body supports a thriving diversity of microbes which comprise a dynamic, ancillary, functional system that synergistically develops in lock-step with physiological development of its host. The human microbiome field has transitioned from cataloging this rich diversity to dissecting molecular mechanisms by which microbiomes influence human health. Early life microbiome development trains immune function. Thus, vertically, horizontally, and environmentally acquired microbes and their metabolites have the potential to shape developmental trajectories with life-long implications for health.

    • Elze Rackaityte
    •  & Susan V. Lynch
  • Comment
    | Open Access

    Synthetic biology is among the most hyped research topics this century, and in 2010 it entered its teenage years. But rather than these being a problematic time, we’ve seen synthetic biology blossom and deliver many new technologies and landmark achievements.

    • Fankang Meng
    •  & Tom Ellis
  • Comment
    | Open Access

    Protected areas (PAs) are the most important conservation tool, yet assessing their effectiveness is remarkably challenging. We clarify the links between the many facets of PA effectiveness, from evaluating the means, to analysing the mechanisms, to directly measuring biodiversity outcomes.

    • Ana S. L. Rodrigues
    •  & Victor Cazalis
  • Comment
    | Open Access

    Myelinating Schwann cells control the diameter of the axons they ensheath by an unknown mechanism. In a recent article in Nature Communications, Eichel and colleagues identify the tetraspan protein CMTM6 as a regulator of axonal caliber.

    • Nimrod Elazar
    •  & Elior Peles
  • Comment
    | Open Access

    A large-scale screening campaign has yielded dozens of crystal structures of small molecule fragments that bind to the main protease of SARS-CoV-2. The global research community is encouraged to pursue these as drug discovery starting points for COVID-19.

    • Daniel A. Erlanson

Focus

Therapeutics

Jaeok Park et al./doi:10.1038/ncomms14132

Therapeutics

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