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The rapid evolution of durophagy in lungfish

Xindong Cui et al. describe exceptionally preserved fossils of lungfish (air-breathing fish) from the Early Devonian that show early adaptations to durophagy, or the consumption of hard-shelled prey.

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  • Conventional models propose multiple fault systems across a diffuse deformation zone absorbing plate convergence in the western Mediterranean. Here the authors show new data supporting the active development of a single plate boundary fault system, representing an underappreciated seismic and tsunami hazard.

    • Laura Gómez de la Peña
    • César R. Ranero
    • Abdelkarim Yelles-Chaouche
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  • In this study, the authors report that anionic nanoplastics can harness the paracellular space of endothelial cells and puncture blood vasculature ex vivo and in vivo, thereby entailing new environmental and health implications.

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    • Yuhuan Li
    • Pu Chun Ke
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  • Nanosized Pd-based catalysts are widely used in the direct hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) synthesis from H2 and O2, while the selectivity and yield of H2O2 remain inferior. Here, a remarkable H2O2 yield of 115 mol/gPd/h and H2O2 selectivity higher than 99% are reported using a Pd single-atom catalyst for the direct synthesis of H2O2.

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    • Xing Cheng
    • Ge Chen
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  • Recent development of analytical techniques – capable of characterizing physicochemical properties during electrochemical measurements – enables new pathways for improving the fundamental understanding of battery systems. This editorial highlights recent research efforts showcasing operando approaches published in Nature Communications.

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  • The optoelectronic performance of wide-bandgap semiconductors often cannot compete with that of their defect-tolerant small-bandgap counterpart. Here, the authors outline three main challenges to overcome for mitigating the impact of defects in wide-bandgap semiconductors.

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  • A plethora of work has shown that AI systems can systematically and unfairly be biased against certain populations in multiple scenarios. The field of medical imaging, where AI systems are beginning to be increasingly adopted, is no exception. Here we discuss the meaning of fairness in this area and comment on the potential sources of biases, as well as the strategies available to mitigate them. Finally, we analyze the current state of the field, identifying strengths and highlighting areas of vacancy, challenges and opportunities that lie ahead.

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