multicellular bacteria looking like caterpillars

Evolution of longitudinal division in multicellular bacteria

Sammy Nyongesa, Philipp Weber et al. study cell shape and cell division in a family of bacteria, some of which divide in unusual ways and form caterpillar-like multicellular structures… in your mouth!

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Latest Research articles

Subjects within Physical sciences

  • Analysis of the largest available database of Holocene temperature time series covering past 12,000 years reveals complex spatio-temporal trends and challenges the paradigm of a globally synchronous Holocene Thermal Maximum.

    • Olivier Cartapanis
    • Lukas Jonkers
    • Anne de Vernal
    Article Open Access
  • Melting of the Antarctic Ice Sheet is projected to impose severe costs on Small Island Developing States, and increase the worldwide social cost of carbon emissions, but costs could be reduced dramatically by efficient, proactive coastal planning.

    • Simon Dietz
    • Felix Koninx
    Article Open Access
  • Huang and Hawthorne present new evidence supporting that tremor and slow slip are linked by the same moment-duration scaling. First-order implications would include that tremor and slow slip are likely generated by the same fault zone process.

    • Hui Huang
    • Jessica C. Hawthorne
    Article Open Access
  • Many lakes on Earth are covered by seasonal ice, and as lake ice loss has been increasing, it is ever more important to quantify this. Here the authors present a fully coupled lake ice model projection as a part of the new CESM2 large ensemble modelling project and show that unprecedented lake ice loss is emerging globally as a result of anthropogenic-induced warming.

    • Lei Huang
    • Axel Timmermann
    • Eui-Seok Chung
    Article Open Access
  • Sedimentary ancient DNA can indicate ecosystem-wide changes. Here, the authors show association between warm phases and high diatom abundance in the Antarctic Scotia Sea, in addition to presenting ancient eukaryote sedimentary DNA spanning the last approximately 1 million years.

    • Linda Armbrecht
    • Michael E. Weber
    • Xufeng Zheng
    Article Open Access

Subjects within Earth and environmental sciences

  • HOXA9 plays an important role in acute myeloid leukaemia (AML), but its relevance for other blood malignancies is unclear. Here, the authors show that HOXA9 has a binary switch function that can clinically stratify AML patients, and model how the interactions with JAK2, TET2 and NOTCH impact myeloproliferative neoplasms.

    • Laure Talarmain
    • Matthew A. Clarke
    • Benjamin A. Hall
    Article Open Access
  • Mechanisms of non-response to ustekinumab, a biologic targeting IL-23, are currently unclear. Here, the authors show that the transcriptional program regulated by IL-22, an IL-23 responsive cytokine, is enriched in patients with ulcerative colitis unresponsive to ustekinumab and associated with higher colon neutrophil recruitment and activation of upstream IL-22 regulators.

    • Polychronis Pavlidis
    • Anastasia Tsakmaki
    • Nick Powell
    Article Open Access
  • The immunoglobulin domain framework of antibodies has been a long standing design challenge. Here, the authors describe design rules for tailoring these domains and show they can be accurately designed, de novo, with high stability and the ability to scaffold functional loops.

    • Tamuka M. Chidyausiku
    • Soraia R. Mendes
    • Enrique Marcos
    Article Open Access
  • COVID-19 can be treated with monoclonal antibodies against SARS-CoV-2, but emerging new variants might show resistance towards existing therapy. Here authors show that anti-SARS-CoV-2 spike human single-chain antibody fragments could gain neutralizing activity against variants of concern upon engineering into a human bispecific antibody.

    • Matthew R. Chang
    • Luke Tomasovic
    • Wayne A. Marasco
    Article Open Access
  • The activity of multiple enzymes is dysregulated in cancer, but this cannot always be measured through enzyme expression. Here, the authors develop methods to measure protease activity across the organism, tissue, and single cell scales, and identify protease dysregulation in lung cancer and its response to targeted therapy.

    • Ava P. Amini
    • Jesse D. Kirkpatrick
    • Sangeeta N. Bhatia
    Article Open Access

Subjects within Biological sciences

  • Characterising the response to SARS-CoV-2 post vaccination is critical in the appraisement of the induced immune response, performance and protective potential. Here the authors present data from a phase 4 clinical trial in autoimmune rheumatic disease patients 6 months post second dose of Sinovac-CoronaVac inactivated vaccine that show a marked reduction in antibody particularly in males or those under treatment with immune targeting therapies but saw no rise in COVID-19 disease.

    • Clovis A. Silva
    • Ana C. Medeiros-Ribeiro
    • Eloisa Bonfa
    Article Open Access
  • Acute lung injury caused by inhalation of pathogens leads to mortality, but the mechanisms are unclear. Here, the authors show in mice that that loss of the mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU) of alveolar type 2 cells (AT2) impaired mitochondrial Ca2+ buffering and surfactant secretion, and increased mortality, in response to LPS instillation, suggesting the MCU as a potential therapeutic target in ALI.

    • Mohammad Naimul Islam
    • Galina A. Gusarova
    • Jahar Bhattacharya
    Article Open Access
  • Mechanisms of non-response to ustekinumab, a biologic targeting IL-23, are currently unclear. Here, the authors show that the transcriptional program regulated by IL-22, an IL-23 responsive cytokine, is enriched in patients with ulcerative colitis unresponsive to ustekinumab and associated with higher colon neutrophil recruitment and activation of upstream IL-22 regulators.

    • Polychronis Pavlidis
    • Anastasia Tsakmaki
    • Nick Powell
    Article Open Access
  • Amyloid fibrils of β2-microglobulin (β2m) can cause dialysis-related amyloidosis. Here, the authors show that a decrease in serum albumin levels in long-term dialysis deteriorates the inhibitory effects of serum milieux on supersaturation-limited amyloid formation of β2m, suggesting that macromolecular crowding protects the onset of amyloidosis.

    • Kichitaro Nakajima
    • Keiichi Yamaguchi
    • Yuji Goto
    Article Open Access
  • Patient-level external control data from prior clinical studies or electronic health records can be used in the design and analysis of clinical trials. Here the authors report a hybrid trial design combining the use of external control data and randomization to test experimental treatments, using small cell lung cancer and glioblastoma datasets as examples.

    • Steffen Ventz
    • Sean Khozin
    • Lorenzo Trippa
    Article Open Access

Subjects within Health sciences

  • For many AI systems, it is hard to interpret how they make decisions. Here, the authors show that non-experts value interpretability in AI, especially for decisions involving high stakes and scarce resources, but they sacrifice AI interpretability when it trades off against AI accuracy.

    • Anne-Marie Nussberger
    • Lan Luo
    • M. J. Crockett
    Article Open Access
  • Socioeconomic segregation is one of the main factors behind large-scale inequalities in urban areas and its characterisation remains challenging. The authors propose a family of non-parametric measures to quantify spatial heterogeneity through diffusion, and show how this relates to segregation and deprivation

    • Sandro Sousa
    • Vincenzo Nicosia
    Article Open Access
  • How land-tenure regimes affect deforestation remains ambiguous. This study shows how deforestation in Brazil is land-tenure dependent, and how strategies to effectively reduce deforestation can range from strengthening poorly defined rights to strengthening conservation-focused regimes.

    • Andrea Pacheco
    • Carsten Meyer
    Article Open Access
  • Wheat breeding programmes improve yield by enhancing biotic and abiotic stress resistance. This study reveals that high temperature extremes adversely affect the productivity of new elite wheat breeding lines, and that future yield gains may be outpaced by the rapid advance of climate change.

    • Tianyi Zhang
    • Yong He
    • Xiaoguang Yang
    Article Open Access

Subjects within Scientific community and society

  • What is an optimal parameter landscape and geometric layout for a quantum processor so that its qubits are sufficiently protected for idling and simultaneously responsive enough for fast entangling gates? Quantum engineers pondering the dilemma might want to take a look on tools developed for many-body localization.

    • Matti Silveri
    • Tuure Orell
    Comment Open Access
  • While passive solar-driven evaporative systems promise higher economic and environmental sustainability in water treatment, many challenges remain for their effective adoption. Here, the author identifies three main pillars and corresponding issues which future research should focus on to bring these technologies to the next maturity level.

    • Eliodoro Chiavazzo
    Comment Open Access
  • Currently approved COVID vaccines are designed using the spike antigen derived from the ancestral strain, but health authorities are recommending changes to the vaccine strain to combat emerging variants. The goal is to ensure that next generation vaccines can tackle multiple variants of concern including the most prevalent variant for the coming season. We here discuss recent preclinical and clinical data on COVID vaccine antigens that are potential candidates for an updated vaccine.

    • Saranya Sridhar
    • Roman M. Chicz
    • Jean-Francois Toussaint
    Comment Open Access
  • Adolescence is marked by heightened stress exposure and psychopathology, but also vast potential for opportunity. We highlight how researchers can leverage both developmental and individual differences in stress responding and corticolimbic circuitry to optimize interventions during this unique developmental period.

    • Dylan G. Gee
    • Lucinda M. Sisk
    • Nessa V. Bryce
    Comment Open Access
  • Over the last two and a half years, Nature Communications has received thousands of submissions related to the COVID-19 pandemic and accepted hundreds for publication. To showcase the breadth and quality of this work, we are now launching a COVID-19 Collection, and here we reflect on our editorial processes during this period.

    Editorial Open Access
  • Most organelles move bidirectionally on microtubule tracks, yet how this opposing movement is regulated by kinesin and dynein remains unclear. Recent work found that ARL8, a known anterograde adaptor linking the lysosome to kinesin, also links lysosomes to the retrograde motor dynein, providing key insight into bidirectional organelle movement in cells.

    • Agnieszka A. Kendrick
    • Jenna R. Christensen
    Comment Open Access
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