multicellular bacteria looking like caterpillars

Evolution of longitudinal division in multicellular bacteria

Sammy Nyongesa, Philipp Weber et al. study cell shape and cell division in a family of bacteria, some of which divide in unusual ways and form caterpillar-like multicellular structures… in your mouth!

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Subjects within Physical sciences

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  • Vaccination can provide reliable and long-lasting protection against COVID-19, however the immune response to vaccination can vary between individuals and can decline over time, leading to differences in protective effects. Here the authors assess the immune response to COVID-19 vaccination across a large cohort of previously uninfected adults and demonstrate lower post-vaccination antibody levels amongst those with immune-suppressing conditions and medications, as well as those with several other more common chronic conditions.

    • Madhumita Shrotri
    • Ellen Fragaszy
    • Robert W. Aldridge
    Article Open Access
  • Here the authors show TERRA R-loops recruit the endonuclease XPF to telomeres, leading to DNA double-strand breaks to activate break-induced telomere synthesis at telomeres that utilize the alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) pathway to extend their telomeres independent of telomerase.

    • Chia-Yu Guh
    • Hong-Jhih Shen
    • Hsueh-Ping Catherine Chu
    Article Open Access
  • Precise and reliable gene delivery remains technically challenging. Here, the authors show that rationally designed frameshifting splicing can be used to express genes only in targeted cell types, with the potential to enhance the specificity AAV gene delivery.

    • Jonathan P. Ling
    • Alexei M. Bygrave
    • Seth Blackshaw
    Article Open Access
  • This study identifies the evolutionarily conserved Exportin 4 as an essential regulator in the nuclear export of circRNAs. Defective circRNA export results in R-loop formation and DNA damage in cells, as well as testis and neurological defects in mice.

    • Liang Chen
    • Yucong Wang
    • Ge Shan
    Article Open Access
  • Influenza A virus (IAV) nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) is a multifunctional virulence factor that interacts with several host factors such as phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K). NS1 binds specifically to the p85β regulatory subunit of PI3K and subsequently activates PI3K signaling. Here, Kim et al. show that functionally near-neutral, strain-specific NS1 mutations lead to variations in binding kinetics to p85β exhibit long-range epistatic interactions. Applying NMR they provide evidence that the structural dynamics of the NS1 hydrophobic core have evolved over time and contributed to epistasis.

    • Iktae Kim
    • Alyssa Dubrow
    • Jae-Hyun Cho
    Article Open Access

Subjects within Biological sciences

Subjects within Health sciences

  • How land-tenure regimes affect deforestation remains ambiguous. This study shows how deforestation in Brazil is land-tenure dependent, and how strategies to effectively reduce deforestation can range from strengthening poorly defined rights to strengthening conservation-focused regimes.

    • Andrea Pacheco
    • Carsten Meyer
    Article Open Access
  • Wheat breeding programmes improve yield by enhancing biotic and abiotic stress resistance. This study reveals that high temperature extremes adversely affect the productivity of new elite wheat breeding lines, and that future yield gains may be outpaced by the rapid advance of climate change.

    • Tianyi Zhang
    • Yong He
    • Xiaoguang Yang
    Article Open Access
  • This research quantifies the role of zero deforestation policies and potential leakages in Brazilian soybean production, the third major driver of deforestation globally. Here the authors provide the first estimates of net global avoided soy-driven deforestation from zero-deforestation import restrictions and find that such restrictions could help avoid ~40% of deforestation for soy cultivation in Brazil and ~2% of global deforestation.

    • Nelson Villoria
    • Rachael Garrett
    • Kimberly Carlson
    Article Open Access

Subjects within Scientific community and society

  • Adolescence is marked by heightened stress exposure and psychopathology, but also vast potential for opportunity. We highlight how researchers can leverage both developmental and individual differences in stress responding and corticolimbic circuitry to optimize interventions during this unique developmental period.

    • Dylan G. Gee
    • Lucinda M. Sisk
    • Nessa V. Bryce
    Comment Open Access
  • Over the last two and a half years, Nature Communications has received thousands of submissions related to the COVID-19 pandemic and accepted hundreds for publication. To showcase the breadth and quality of this work, we are now launching a COVID-19 Collection, and here we reflect on our editorial processes during this period.

    Editorial Open Access
  • Most organelles move bidirectionally on microtubule tracks, yet how this opposing movement is regulated by kinesin and dynein remains unclear. Recent work found that ARL8, a known anterograde adaptor linking the lysosome to kinesin, also links lysosomes to the retrograde motor dynein, providing key insight into bidirectional organelle movement in cells.

    • Agnieszka A. Kendrick
    • Jenna R. Christensen
    Comment Open Access
  • Advances in geospatial and Machine Learning techniques for large datasets of georeferenced observations have made it possible to produce model-based global maps of ecological and environmental variables. However, the implementation of existing scientific methods (especially Machine Learning models) to produce accurate global maps is often complex. Tomislav Hengl (co-founder of OpenGeoHub foundation), Johan van den Hoogen (researcher at ETH Zürich), and Devin Routh (Science IT Consultant at the University of Zürich) shared with Nature Communications their perspectives for creators and users of these maps, focusing on the key challenges in producing global environmental geospatial datasets to achieve significant impacts.

    Q&A Open Access
  • Chirality of magnons is an intrinsic degree of freedom that characterizes the handedness of spin precession around its equilibrium direction. This commentary summarizes recent progress on spin pumping by ferromagnetic resonance in magnetic heterostructures. In particular, the commentary highlights one fundamental issue in spin pumping: the chirality dependence of the spin current.

    • Z. Q. Qiu
    Comment Open Access
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