The rapid evolution of durophagy in lungfish

Xindong Cui et al. describe exceptionally preserved fossils of lungfish (air-breathing fish) from the Early Devonian that show early adaptations to durophagy, or the consumption of hard-shelled prey.


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Latest Research articles

  • Here the authors provide a theoretical description of non-Hermitian topological phenomena in an atomic mirror. They find out diverse and unexpected phenomena by constructing an ad-hoc theoretical model. In particular, exceptional points, dispersive bulk Fermi arcs, and non-Hermitian geometry-dependent skin effect.

    • Yi-Cheng Wang
    • Jhih-Shih You
    • H. H. Jen
    Article Open Access
  • Wang et al. report an underwater capillary adhesive that is strengthened by the conjunction of inner water bridge and outer air shell, and switched timely by a small direct current voltage. The design can also be constructed on flexible tapes, which can be applied to non-conductive substrates.

    • Huanxi Zheng
    • Jing Li
    • Zuankai Wang
    Article Open Access
  • In graphene and on the surfaces of many topological insulators, the Dirac cones are pinned to high symmetry points in reciprocal space. Here, the authors report that the Dirac cones in atomically-thin Sb layers occur at generic reciprocal-space points which can be tuned by lattice strain.

    • Qiangsheng Lu
    • Jacob Cook
    • Guang Bian
    Article Open Access
  • In modern power grids, knowing the required electric power demand and its variations is necessary to balance demand and supply. The authors propose a data-driven approach to create high-resolution load profiles and characterize their fluctuations, based on recorded data of electricity consumption.

    • Mehrnaz Anvari
    • Elisavet Proedrou
    • Marc Timme
    Article Open Access

Subjects within Physical sciences

  • Climatic variables have played a significant role in plant evolution across the Phanerozoic. Here, the authors link climate with a new dynamic vegetation model to identify two windows of opportunity for plant biomass expansion, corresponding with the expansion of land plants and the angiosperm radiation.

    • Khushboo Gurung
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    • Benjamin J. W. Mills
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  • Previous hypotheses cannot fully explain the large lightning excess over land compared to ocean. It is found that coarse sea spray that create large drops precipitates cloud water before it can freeze, thus robbing the fuel for cloud electrification

    • Zengxin Pan
    • Feiyue Mao
    • Wei Gong
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  • Fluids released from progressive breakdown of minerals at increasing pressure within a mélange may explain the trace element systematics and stable thallium isotope data of the Kamchatka arc lavas from volcanic front to back arc.

    • Yunchao Shu
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    • Maureen Auro
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  • High extraction capacity with precise selectivity to trace amounts of gold over a wide range of co-existing elements remains a challenge for effective e-waste recycling. Here, authors demonstrate the excellent performance of rGO for gold extraction from e-waste leachate, even at minute concentrations.

    • Fei Li
    • Jiuyi Zhu
    • Hui-Ming Cheng
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Subjects within Earth and environmental sciences

Subjects within Biological sciences

Subjects within Health sciences

Subjects within Scientific community and society

  • A plethora of work has shown that AI systems can systematically and unfairly be biased against certain populations in multiple scenarios. The field of medical imaging, where AI systems are beginning to be increasingly adopted, is no exception. Here we discuss the meaning of fairness in this area and comment on the potential sources of biases, as well as the strategies available to mitigate them. Finally, we analyze the current state of the field, identifying strengths and highlighting areas of vacancy, challenges and opportunities that lie ahead.

    • María Agustina Ricci Lara
    • Rodrigo Echeveste
    • Enzo Ferrante
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  • Kv3 channels enable neurons to fire at very high frequencies (>100 Hz) which is fundamental to brain development and our ability to make sense of the world at large. Cryo-EM and structure-function studies by Chi et al. now uncover Kv3 channel gating mechanisms and support new precision medicine approaches for CNS diseases.

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  • Lockdowns due to the pandemic in the last two years forced a critical number of chip-making facilities across the world to shut down, giving rise to the chip shortage issues. Prof. Meng-Fan (Marvin) Chang (National Tsing Hua University, TSMC—Taiwan), Prof. Huaqiang Wu (Tsinghua University—China), Dr. Elisa Vianello (CEA-Leti—France), Dr. Sang Joon Kim (Samsung Electronics—South Korea) and Dr. Mirko Prezioso (Mentium Techn.—US) talked to Nature Communications to better understand whether and to what extent this crisis has impacted the development of in-memory/neuromorphic chips, an emerging technology for future computing.

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  • The prion hypothesis embodies the radical concept that prion proteins contain the necessary information for infectious replication within their shape, thus obviating the requirement for genomic material. Two elegant papers by Hoyt et al. and Manka et al. describing high-resolution structures of infectious prions bring us closer to answering the long-standing question of how different prion conformations produce heritably distinct diseases.

    • Glenn C. Telling
    Comment Open Access
  • Diversity is a creative force that broadens views and enhances ideas; it increases productivity as well as the impact of our science, making our respective organisations more agile and timely. Equality of opportunity is a key to success for any research organisation. Here we argue that every research organisation, whether in academia or in industry, needs to have better inclusion policies to harness the benefits of diversity in research. Drawing from our personal experiences and perspectives as women in science, we share our suggestions on how to promote inclusion in academia and create a better research culture for all. Our shared experiences highlight the many hurdles women in science face on a daily basis. We stress that rules and regulations, as well as education for awareness, will play critical role in this much needed shift from a male-dominated scientific culture that dates from Victorian times to a modern focus on gender equality in science. The key ingredients of this new culture will be flexibility, transparency, fairness and thoughtfulness.

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Here we showcase the most exciting recent advances in the Earth and environmental sciences. This research spans atmospheric, terrestrial, freshwater and marine systems, the intersection of Earth science and biology, and natural hazards.


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