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The rapid evolution of durophagy in lungfish

Xindong Cui et al. describe exceptionally preserved fossils of lungfish (air-breathing fish) from the Early Devonian that show early adaptations to durophagy, or the consumption of hard-shelled prey.

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  • Cancer-associated cachexia is characterized by loss of body weight, skeletal muscle and adipose tissue which relates to higher mortality in cancer patients. Here, the authors show in a lung cancer murine model that both ActRIIB signalling inhibition and restoring appetite are necessary to revert cachexia and improve survival in female mice.

    • Andre Lima Queiroz
    • Ezequiel Dantas
    • Marcus D. Goncalves
    Article Open Access
  • There is a broad range of research available on the relationship between food security and mental health. Here the authors carry out a systematic mapping of evidence on food security and nutrition related to mental health and identifies trends in themes, setting, and study design over the 20 year period studied.

    • Thalia M. Sparling
    • Megan Deeney
    • Suneetha Kadiyala
    Article Open Access
  • Classification and risk-stratification for Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML) at diagnosis are primarily based on cytogenetics and only a few gene mutations. Here, the authors study the genomic landscape of 3653 AML patients and characterize 16 non-overlapping molecular subgroups of clinical relevance for disease classification and risk prognostication.

    • Yanis Tazi
    • Juan E. Arango-Ossa
    • Elli Papaemmanuil
    Article Open Access
  • Pancreatic β-cells are naturally prone to ER stress due to their role in insulin production and secretion. Here, the authors show that chronic ER stress adaptive exhaustion results in an irreversible loss of β-cell function leading to T1D pathogenesis

    • Chien-Wen Chen
    • Bo-Jhih Guan
    • Maria Hatzoglou
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  • A plethora of work has shown that AI systems can systematically and unfairly be biased against certain populations in multiple scenarios. The field of medical imaging, where AI systems are beginning to be increasingly adopted, is no exception. Here we discuss the meaning of fairness in this area and comment on the potential sources of biases, as well as the strategies available to mitigate them. Finally, we analyze the current state of the field, identifying strengths and highlighting areas of vacancy, challenges and opportunities that lie ahead.

    • María Agustina Ricci Lara
    • Rodrigo Echeveste
    • Enzo Ferrante
    Comment Open Access
  • Kv3 channels enable neurons to fire at very high frequencies (>100 Hz) which is fundamental to brain development and our ability to make sense of the world at large. Cryo-EM and structure-function studies by Chi et al. now uncover Kv3 channel gating mechanisms and support new precision medicine approaches for CNS diseases.

    • Martin J. Gunthorpe
    Comment Open Access
  • Lockdowns due to the pandemic in the last two years forced a critical number of chip-making facilities across the world to shut down, giving rise to the chip shortage issues. Prof. Meng-Fan (Marvin) Chang (National Tsing Hua University, TSMC—Taiwan), Prof. Huaqiang Wu (Tsinghua University—China), Dr. Elisa Vianello (CEA-Leti—France), Dr. Sang Joon Kim (Samsung Electronics—South Korea) and Dr. Mirko Prezioso (Mentium Techn.—US) talked to Nature Communications to better understand whether and to what extent this crisis has impacted the development of in-memory/neuromorphic chips, an emerging technology for future computing.

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  • The prion hypothesis embodies the radical concept that prion proteins contain the necessary information for infectious replication within their shape, thus obviating the requirement for genomic material. Two elegant papers by Hoyt et al. and Manka et al. describing high-resolution structures of infectious prions bring us closer to answering the long-standing question of how different prion conformations produce heritably distinct diseases.

    • Glenn C. Telling
    Comment Open Access
  • Diversity is a creative force that broadens views and enhances ideas; it increases productivity as well as the impact of our science, making our respective organisations more agile and timely. Equality of opportunity is a key to success for any research organisation. Here we argue that every research organisation, whether in academia or in industry, needs to have better inclusion policies to harness the benefits of diversity in research. Drawing from our personal experiences and perspectives as women in science, we share our suggestions on how to promote inclusion in academia and create a better research culture for all. Our shared experiences highlight the many hurdles women in science face on a daily basis. We stress that rules and regulations, as well as education for awareness, will play critical role in this much needed shift from a male-dominated scientific culture that dates from Victorian times to a modern focus on gender equality in science. The key ingredients of this new culture will be flexibility, transparency, fairness and thoughtfulness.

    • Sarah A. Teichmann
    • Muzlifah Haniffa
    • Jasmin Fisher
    Comment Open Access
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