Volume 9 Issue 4, April 2019

Volume 9 Issue 4

Shallowing Southern Ocean aragonite

The aragonite saturation horizon depth is an indicator of ocean acidification. Model projections show the emergence of a shallow horizon in the near future in the Southern Ocean, reducing the suitable habitat for surface-dwelling aragonitic organisms, such as the pteropod illustrated on the cover.

See Lovenduski et al.

Image: Kristen Krumhardt, National Center for Atmospheric Research. Cover Design: Tulsi Voralia.

Editorial

  • Editorial |

    Men and women differ in their perceptions of environmental risk, vulnerability to climate change impacts and adaptation behaviour. Effective policies must address the diversity of gender roles and identities, and the underlying drivers of inequality.

Correspondence

Research Highlights

News & Views

  • News & Views |

    Women have typically been excluded from forest conservation programs due to traditional decision-making structures in their villages and local governments. Research now shows that greater representation of women in forest-user groups leads to more equitable sharing of program benefits and increases conservation outcomes.

    • Björn Vollan
    •  & Adam Douglas Henry
  • News & Views |

    The Arctic climate is changing rapidly, but quantifying outcomes for Inuit has been elusive. Now, research starts with trail-use instead of models, and finds that the effects from climate change are modest compared with the role of skill and risk-tolerance of the travellers.

    • Henry P. Huntington

Perspectives

  • Perspective |

    The Deep Decarbonization Pathways Project develops a framework to design low-emission development pathways. This Perspective discusses the framework and how it can support the development of national strategies to meet climate targets, as well as help achieve stakeholder engagement.

    • Henri Waisman
    • , Chris Bataille
    • , Harald Winkler
    • , Frank Jotzo
    • , Priyadarshi Shukla
    • , Michel Colombier
    • , Daniel Buira
    • , Patrick Criqui
    • , Manfred Fischedick
    • , Mikiko Kainuma
    • , Emilio La Rovere
    • , Steve Pye
    • , George Safonov
    • , Ucok Siagian
    • , Fei Teng
    • , Maria-Rosa Virdis
    • , Jim Williams
    • , Soogil Young
    • , Gabrial Anandarajah
    • , Rizaldi Boer
    • , Yongsun Cho
    • , Amandine Denis-Ryan
    • , Subash Dhar
    • , Maria Gaeta
    • , Claudio Gesteira
    • , Ben Haley
    • , Jean-Charles Hourcade
    • , Qiang Liu
    • , Oleg Lugovoy
    • , Toshihiko Masui
    • , Sandrine Mathy
    • , Ken Oshiro
    • , Ramiro Parrado
    • , Minal Pathak
    • , Vladimir Potashnikov
    • , Sascha Samadi
    • , David Sawyer
    • , Thomas Spencer
    • , Jordi Tovilla
    •  & Hilton Trollip
  • Perspective |

    Emergent constraints can be an evaluation tool for Earth System Models. This Perspective discusses emergent constraints, how they should be assessed, and when these statistical relationships can be confirmed and used to improve understanding of the changing climate system.

    • Alex Hall
    • , Peter Cox
    • , Chris Huntingford
    •  & Stephen Klein

Review Articles

  • Review Article |

    Cities around the world are at the forefront of enacting climate mitigation policies, but effective action requires a better understanding of potential solutions. This Review offers a systematic exploration of the urban case study literature and discusses ways to best make use of the growing body of cases.

    • William F. Lamb
    • , Felix Creutzig
    • , Max W. Callaghan
    •  & Jan C. Minx

Matters Arising

Letters

  • Letter |

    Uncertainties are often cited as a reason for mitigation inaction. Here, millions of scenarios are evaluated to assess the relative importance of human–earth system uncertainties and policy variables. The growth rate of global abatement is found to be the primary driver of long-term warming.

    • J. R. Lamontagne
    • , P. M. Reed
    • , G. Marangoni
    • , K. Keller
    •  & G. G. Garner
  • Letter |

    High-resolution coupled climate model simulations suggest only 0.4% of the land surface will see exacerbated hydrological risks under solar geoengineering that halves warming, indicating that geoengineering-related risks may be overstated.

    • Peter Irvine
    • , Kerry Emanuel
    • , Jie He
    • , Larry W. Horowitz
    • , Gabriel Vecchi
    •  & David Keith
  • Letter |

    Greater land–sea temperature contrast under anthropogenic warming will enhance aerosol concentrations, reveal model simulations, linked to reductions in large-scale cloud cover and corresponding decreases in precipitation and aerosol wet removal.

    • Robert J. Allen
    • , Taufiq Hassan
    • , Cynthia A. Randles
    •  & Hui Su
  • Letter |

    Marine heatwaves are increasing in frequency, but they vary in their manifestation. All events impact ecosystem structure and functioning, with increased risk of negative impacts linked to greater biodiversity, number of species near their thermal limit and additional human impacts.

    • Dan A. Smale
    • , Thomas Wernberg
    • , Eric C. J. Oliver
    • , Mads Thomsen
    • , Ben P. Harvey
    • , Sandra C. Straub
    • , Michael T. Burrows
    • , Lisa V. Alexander
    • , Jessica A. Benthuysen
    • , Markus G. Donat
    • , Ming Feng
    • , Alistair J. Hobday
    • , Neil J. Holbrook
    • , Sarah E. Perkins-Kirkpatrick
    • , Hillary A. Scannell
    • , Alex Sen Gupta
    • , Ben L. Payne
    •  & Pippa J. Moore
  • Letter |

    The aragonite saturation horizon depth is an indicator of ocean acidification. Model projections show that a new shallow horizon emerges in the Southern Ocean before 2100, reducing suitable habitat for calcifying species in the near future.

    • Gabriela Negrete-García
    • , Nicole S. Lovenduski
    • , Claudine Hauri
    • , Kristen M. Krumhardt
    •  & Siv K. Lauvset
  • Letter |

    China dominates the global growth in aquaculture food production, primarily through massive conversion of paddy fields to crab ponds. This land conversion is greatly increasing methane emissions but these can be significantly reduced by water aeration.

    • Junji Yuan
    • , Jian Xiang
    • , Deyan Liu
    • , Hojeong Kang
    • , Tiehu He
    • , Sunghyun Kim
    • , Yongxin Lin
    • , Chris Freeman
    •  & Weixin Ding

Articles

  • Article |

    Decision-making structures in forest-user communities often exclude women. This lab-in-field experiment shows that groups in which at least 50% of members were women conserved more trees, and distributed benefits more equally, in a payment for ecosystem services intervention.

    • Nathan J. Cook
    • , Tara Grillos
    •  & Krister P. Andersson
  • Article |

    Climate change has the potential to profoundly affect Arctic transportation systems. Here, Indigenous knowledge and climate data are integrated to model changing trail access for Canada’s Inuit communities over the past 30 years

    • J. D. Ford
    • , D. Clark
    • , T. Pearce
    • , L. Berrang-Ford
    • , L. Copland
    • , J. Dawson
    • , M. New
    •  & S. L Harper

Amendments & Corrections