Volume 8 Issue 8, August 2018

Volume 8 Issue 8

End of Antartic Isolation?

Genomic and oceanographic data show that floating debris, including rafts of living marine organisms, can cross the Southern Ocean and wash up on Antarctic beaches. Fronds of southern bull kelp (Durvillaea Antarctica, a non-Antarctic species recently found in Antarctica) floating on the surface of the ocean at Marion Island are pictured on the cover.

See Fraser et al. and Putman.

Image: Ceridwen Fraser. Cover Design: Tulsi Voralia.

Editorial

  • Editorial |

    It is increasingly clear that achieving the Paris Agreement goal of limiting warming to well below 2 °C will require radical decarbonization, the prospects of which have become closely tied to carbon pricing.

Comment

  • Comment |

    With country-specific development objectives and constraints, multiple market failures and limited international transfers, carbon prices do not need to be uniform across countries, but must be part of broader policy packages.

    • Chris Bataille
    • , Céline Guivarch
    • , Stephane Hallegatte
    • , Joeri Rogelj
    •  & Henri Waisman
  • Comment |

    Low-probability, high-consequence climate change events are likely to trigger management responses that are based on the demand for immediate action from those affected. However, these responses may be inefficient and even maladaptive in the long term.

    • Sarah E. Anderson
    • , Ryan R. Bart
    • , Maureen C. Kennedy
    • , Andrew J. MacDonald
    • , Max A. Moritz
    • , Andrew J. Plantinga
    • , Christina L. Tague
    •  & Matthew Wibbenmeyer
  • Comment |

    A well-defined relationship between global mean sea-level rise and cumulative carbon emissions can be used to inform policy about emission limits to prevent dangerous and essentially permanent anthropogenic interference with the climate system.

    • Peter U. Clark
    • , Alan C. Mix
    • , Michael Eby
    • , Anders Levermann
    • , Joeri Rogelj
    • , Alexander Nauels
    •  & David J. Wrathall
  • Comment |

    Climate change-driven alterations in storminess pose a significant threat to global capture fisheries. Understanding how storms interact with fishery social-ecological systems can inform adaptive action and help to reduce the vulnerability of those dependent on fisheries for life and livelihood.

    • Nigel C. Sainsbury
    • , Martin J. Genner
    • , Geoffrey R. Saville
    • , John K. Pinnegar
    • , Clare K. O’Neill
    • , Stephen D. Simpson
    •  & Rachel A. Turner

Books & Arts

Research Highlights

News & Views

  • News & Views |

    Political crises may exacerbate environmental conflicts by shifting conservation priorities. Research now shows that increased carbon emissions from deforestation in Brazil may compromise its goals under the Paris Agreement.

    • Otavio Cavalett
  • News & Views |

    The coincident reduction of Arctic sea ice with increasing mid-latitude wintertime extremes has motivated much research on Arctic–mid-latitude linkages. A new study reveals that projected Antarctic sea-ice loss could also impact the Southern Hemisphere mid-latitudes through perturbations to the strength and position of the westerly winds.

    • Yannick Peings
  • News & Views |

    Will the Southern Ocean’s relentless waves undo Antarctica’s ecological isolation? The discovery of a wayward piece of kelp and a simple numerical experiment set new expectations for the potential invasion of Earth’s most isolated continent.

    • Nathan F. Putman
  • News & Views |

    Protecting and restoring forests to mitigate climate change also promises to help protect tropical biodiversity and ecosystem services. Analysis now shows that optimizing for carbon can come at the expense of protecting biodiversity, but there are ways to effectively pair the two.

    • Kristina J. Anderson-Teixeira

Perspectives

  • Perspective |

    Ambitious carbon pricing reform is needed to meet climate targets. This Perspective argues that effective revenue recycling schemes should prioritize behavioural considerations that are aimed at achieving greater political acceptance.

    • David Klenert
    • , Linus Mattauch
    • , Emmanuel Combet
    • , Ottmar Edenhofer
    • , Cameron Hepburn
    • , Ryan Rafaty
    •  & Nicholas Stern
  • Perspective |

    Ocean acidification, a result of increased levels of CO2, impacts the marine environment and its biology. This Perspective presents the current understanding of the issue and highlights future directions for research.

    • Catriona L. Hurd
    • , Andrew Lenton
    • , Bronte Tilbrook
    •  & Philip W. Boyd

Letters

  • Letter |

    Political bargaining has the potential to reverse Brazil’s deforestation control efforts. Integrated assessment modelling shows that weaker environmental governance threatens the country’s ability to achieve emissions consistent with a 2 °C goal.

    • Pedro R. R. Rochedo
    • , Britaldo Soares-Filho
    • , Roberto Schaeffer
    • , Eduardo Viola
    • , Alexandre Szklo
    • , André F. P. Lucena
    • , Alexandre Koberle
    • , Juliana Leroy Davis
    • , Raoni Rajão
    •  & Regis Rathmann
  • Letter |

    Economy-wide GHG emissions reductions may negatively affect food security. Stringent mitigation policies, modelled as carbon prices, are shown to lead to an increase in production costs, food prices and the population’s risk of hunger.

    • Tomoko Hasegawa
    • , Shinichiro Fujimori
    • , Petr Havlík
    • , Hugo Valin
    • , Benjamin Leon Bodirsky
    • , Jonathan C. Doelman
    • , Thomas Fellmann
    • , Page Kyle
    • , Jason F. L. Koopman
    • , Hermann Lotze-Campen
    • , Daniel Mason-D’Croz
    • , Yuki Ochi
    • , Ignacio Pérez Domínguez
    • , Elke Stehfest
    • , Timothy B. Sulser
    • , Andrzej Tabeau
    • , Kiyoshi Takahashi
    • , Jun’ya Takakura
    • , Hans van Meijl
    • , Willem-Jan van Zeist
    • , Keith Wiebe
    •  & Peter Witzke
  • Letter |

    Genomic tools and ocean circulation models show that organisms surface-drift across the Southern Ocean frequently. The extreme cold therefore keeps Antarctica biologically isolated, but as the climate warms new species may establish quickly.

    • Ceridwen I. Fraser
    • , Adele K. Morrison
    • , Andrew McC Hogg
    • , Erasmo C. Macaya
    • , Erik van Sebille
    • , Peter G. Ryan
    • , Amanda Padovan
    • , Cameron Jack
    • , Nelson Valdivia
    •  & Jonathan M. Waters
  • Letter |

    The growth of nitrogen-fixing marine cyanobacteria Trichodesmium is limited by iron availability under current conditions. However warmer temperatures reduce the iron requirement, allowing greater growth rates and increased nitrogen fixation.

    • Hai-Bo Jiang
    • , Fei-Xue Fu
    • , Sara Rivero-Calle
    • , Naomi M. Levine
    • , Sergio A. Sañudo-Wilhelmy
    • , Ping-Ping Qu
    • , Xin-Wei Wang
    • , Paulina Pinedo-Gonzalez
    • , Zhu Zhu
    •  & David A. Hutchins
  • Letter |

    Topographic variations result in microclimatic heterogeneity that can substantially reduce extinction risk from climate change, according to a study of 430 climate-threatened and range-declining species in England.

    • Andrew J. Suggitt
    • , Robert J. Wilson
    • , Nick J. B. Isaac
    • , Colin M. Beale
    • , Alistair G. Auffret
    • , Tom August
    • , Jonathan J. Bennie
    • , Humphrey Q. P. Crick
    • , Simon Duffield
    • , Richard Fox
    • , John J. Hopkins
    • , Nicholas A. Macgregor
    • , Mike D. Morecroft
    • , Kevin J. Walker
    •  & Ilya M. D. Maclean
  • Letter |

    Individual and metapopulation models together project that—under an unabated climate change scenario—warming could reduce breeding productivity of a currently abundant songbird enough to pose a risk of quasi-extinction this century.

    • Thomas W. Bonnot
    • , W. Andrew Cox
    • , Frank R. Thompson
    •  & Joshua J. Millspaugh

Articles

  • Article |

    A 1 °C increase in monthly average temperature is associated with higher suicide rates in the United States and Mexico. Combined with comparable analysis of depressive language in US Twitter updates, these results suggest a link between higher temperatures and mental well-being.

    • Marshall Burke
    • , Felipe González
    • , Patrick Baylis
    • , Sam Heft-Neal
    • , Ceren Baysan
    • , Sanjay Basu
    •  & Solomon Hsiang
  • Article |

    Marine fishes exposed to elevated CO2 levels can have altered responses to sensory cues. Research now reveals a physiological and molecular mechanism in the olfactory system that helps to explain this altered behaviour under elevated CO2.

    • Cosima S. Porteus
    • , Peter C. Hubbard
    • , Tamsyn M. Uren Webster
    • , Ronny van Aerle
    • , Adelino V. M. Canário
    • , Eduarda M. Santos
    •  & Rod W. Wilson
  • Article |

    Biodiversity is positively associated with carbon density in highly disturbed tropical forests, but this relationship breaks down in relatively undisturbed areas. Consequently, carbon conservation schemes can fail to protect the most ecologically valuable forests.

    • Joice Ferreira
    • , Gareth D. Lennox
    • , Toby A. Gardner
    • , James R. Thomson
    • , Erika Berenguer
    • , Alexander C. Lees
    • , Ralph Mac Nally
    • , Luiz E. O. C. Aragão
    • , Silvio F. B. Ferraz
    • , Julio Louzada
    • , Nárgila G. Moura
    • , Victor H. F. Oliveira
    • , Renata Pardini
    • , Ricardo R. C. Solar
    • , Ima C. G. Vieira
    •  & Jos Barlow

Amendments & Corrections