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  • With the development of carbon emission allowance markets worldwide, concerns that they could attract excessive speculation have also grown. This Perspective discusses the potential scale and impacts of financial trading, as well as approaches to improve carbon market monitoring and oversight.

    • Simon Quemin
    • Michael Pahle
  • In this Perspective, the authors argue that radical, rather than conventional, interventions are necessary to address climate change. They discuss the definitions and interpretations of the term ‘radical’, and present a typology of radical intervention that addresses the root drivers of climate change.

    • Tiffany H. Morrison
    • W. Neil Adger
    • Derek Van Berkel
  • The rapid growth of artificial intelligence (AI) is reshaping our society in many ways, and climate change is no exception. This Perspective presents a framework to assess how AI affects GHG emissions and proposes approaches to align the technology with climate change mitigation.

    • Lynn H. Kaack
    • Priya L. Donti
    • David Rolnick
  • Mitigation scenario ensembles are becoming an important tool to bring new and robust insights into the transition to net zero. This Perspective unpacks their potential and identifies key steps for better use of scenario ensembles and to foster good practices.

    • Céline Guivarch
    • Thomas Le Gallic
    • Fabian Wagner
  • Increasing carbon storage through soils could help mitigate climate change and is an important part of many countries’ strategies. The authors review current soil carbon monitoring in the European Union for greenhouse-gas inventories and find that current practices are not accurate enough to measure climate benefits.

    • Valentin Bellassen
    • Denis Angers
    • Asger Olesen
  • Net-zero emissions is more than a concept of physical climate science. It is implemented in social, political and economic contexts. This Perspective proposes seven attributes that are critical for the practical and effective implementation of net zero.

    • Sam Fankhauser
    • Stephen M. Smith
    • Thom Wetzer
  • Natural climate solutions, along with reduction in fossil fuel emissions, are critical to mitigating climate change and meeting climate goals. This Perspective outlines a hierarchy for decision-making regarding protecting, managing and then restoring natural systems for climate mitigation.

    • Susan C. Cook-Patton
    • C. Ronnie Drever
    • Peter W. Ellis
  • Assessing the cost of climate change mitigation is essential to policy-making, yet for many the perception remains that meeting climate goals will entail economic loss. This Perspective unpacks key aspects of mitigation cost estimates to clarify interpretation and discussion of costs.

    • Alexandre C. Köberle
    • Toon Vandyck
    • Joeri Rogelj
  • Carbon capture and storage is key to strong climate change mitigation scenarios, but growth is slow. This Perspective argues that confidence in the expansion of carbon capture and storage requires greater attention to reducing uncertainty over injection dynamics and the pace of storage investment decision-making.

    • Joe Lane
    • Chris Greig
    • Andrew Garnett
  • Disclosure of climate risk to investments was expected to drive divestment from high-carbon assets. This Perspective considers the limitations of transparency to shift investment and the different markets of low- and high-carbon assets; mobilizing finance requires more than disclosure.

    • Nadia Ameli
    • Sumit Kothari
    • Michael Grubb
  • Uncertainty in estimates of the economic impacts of climate change makes it difficult to evaluate the benefits of mitigation. This Perspective reviews methods for determining economic damages from biophysical impacts, highlights critical gaps and suggests priorities moving forward.

    • Franziska Piontek
    • Laurent Drouet
    • Massimo Tavoni
  • There is no common structure for the way national emissions scenarios are created, hindering efforts for comparison and analysis at the larger scale. This Perspective presents a framework to guide individual national scenario creation in a standardized way.

    • Shinichiro Fujimori
    • Volker Krey
    • Keywan Riahi
  • E-fuels—hydrocarbon fuels synthesized from green hydrogen—can replace fossil fuels. This Perspective highlights the opportunities and risks of e-fuels, and concludes that hydrogen and e-fuels should be prioritized for sectors inaccessible to direct electrification.

    • Falko Ueckerdt
    • Christian Bauer
    • Gunnar Luderer
  • Contributions to mitigate climate change should be equitable under the Paris Agreement, yet researchers take sharply diverging approaches to assessing national effort. This Perspective evaluates the literature and presents guidelines for policy-relevant—and ethically explicit—research on equity.

    • Kate Dooley
    • Christian Holz
    • Peter Singer
  • Aerosol–climate interactions are important in the Arctic, but they exhibit large spatiotemporal variability. This Perspective argues for community-driven model and observational improvement, emphasizing the need to understand natural aerosol processes and quantify how their baseline is changing.

    • Julia Schmale
    • Paul Zieger
    • Annica M. L. Ekman
  • Assessing future climate-related financial risk requires knowledge of how the climate will change at various spatial and temporal scales. This Perspective examines the demand for climate information from business and finance communities, and the extent to which climate models can meet these demands.

    • Tanya Fiedler
    • Andy J. Pitman
    • Sarah E. Perkins-Kirkpatrick
  • The SSP–RCP scenario framework has been an important component of physical, social and integrated climate change research for the past decade. This Perspective reviews the successes of the framework and the challenges it faces, and provides suggestions for improvement moving forward.

    • Brian C. O’Neill
    • Timothy R. Carter
    • Ramon Pichs-Madruga
  • The Arctic is warming and undergoing rapid ice loss. This Perspective considers how changes in sea ice will impact the biogeochemistry and associated ecosystems of the region while calling for more observations to improve our understanding of this complex system.

    • Delphine Lannuzel
    • Letizia Tedesco
    • Pat Wongpan
  • As road transport emissions are set to grow, stronger policy mixes are needed to reach mitigation goals. This Perspective considers the evidence for several policy types—strong regulation, pricing and reduced travel—and the best combination to reduce emissions for passenger and freight vehicles.

    • Jonn Axsen
    • Patrick Plötz
    • Michael Wolinetz
  • In recent decades, the Arctic has warmed at over twice the global rate. This Perspective places these trends into the context of abrupt Dansgaard–Oeschger warming events in the palaeoclimate record, arguing that the contemporary Arctic is undergoing comparably abrupt climate change.

    • Eystein Jansen
    • Jens Hesselbjerg Christensen
    • Martin Stendel