Letters

  • Letter |

    Simulation of observed Pacific wind trends is hampered by model limitations in representing variability or the forced response. Improved mean-state climatologies, including the recent Atlantic warming trend, should improve capture of Pacific trends.

    • Shayne McGregor
    • , Malte F. Stuecker
    • , Jules B. Kajtar
    • , Matthew H. England
    •  & Mat Collins
  • Letter |

    Based on an analysis of the distribution of antibiotic resistance across the United States, research shows that increasing local temperatures as well as population density across regions are associated with increasing antibiotic resistance in common bacterial pathogens.

    • Derek R. MacFadden
    • , Sarah F. McGough
    • , David Fisman
    • , Mauricio Santillana
    •  & John S. Brownstein
  • Letter |

    Meeting emissions targets requires limiting use of fossil fuel reserves. For the largest investor- and state-owned producers allowable extraction varies dependent on the approach to calculate burnable fossil fuel allowance.

    • Saphira A. C. Rekker
    • , Katherine R. O’Brien
    • , Jacquelyn E. Humphrey
    •  & Andrew C. Pascale
  • Letter |

    Marine protected areas aim to conserve biodiversity and habitat. However continued high emissions causing changes in sea-surface temperatures and oxygen levels are likely to disrupt many ecosystems protected by MPAs.

    • John F. Bruno
    • , Amanda E. Bates
    • , Chris Cacciapaglia
    • , Elizabeth P. Pike
    • , Steven C. Amstrup
    • , Ruben van Hooidonk
    • , Stephanie A. Henson
    •  & Richard B. Aronson
  • Letter |

    Transgenerational acclimation to warmer oceans has been seen for some marine species. This study shows that the coral reef fish has 193 genes correlated to such acclimation traits, suggesting an epigenetic basis of acclimation.

    • Taewoo Ryu
    • , Heather D. Veilleux
    • , Jennifer M. Donelson
    • , Philip L. Munday
    •  & Timothy Ravasi
  • Letter |

    The record hot year of 2015 in Africa had devastating impacts. The likelihood of future annual temperature extremes over Africa exceeding those of 2015 are 91% and 100% in 1.5 °C and 2 °C worlds, respectively, stressing the benefits of limiting future anthropogenic warming.

    • Shingirai Nangombe
    • , Tianjun Zhou
    • , Wenxia Zhang
    • , Bo Wu
    • , Shuai Hu
    • , Liwei Zou
    •  & Donghuan Li
  • Letter |

    Geographic variation in social, economic, political and climatic factors may influence public responsiveness to climate change messaging. This study shows that messages about scientific consensus have a greater influence in more conservative US states.

    • Baobao Zhang
    • , Sander van der Linden
    • , Matto Mildenberger
    • , Jennifer R. Marlon
    • , Peter D. Howe
    •  & Anthony Leiserowitz
  • Letter |

    Limiting warming to 1.5 °C requires staying within an allowable carbon budget. An analysis of warming and carbon budgets from the past decade shows that the median remaining budget is 208 PgC, corresponding to about 20 years of emissions at the 2015 rate.

    • Katarzyna B. Tokarska
    •  & Nathan P. Gillett
  • Letter |

    Time of reproduction may be altered as the climate changes. For seabirds, it is shown that there has not been an adjustment in timing as the climate changes and the sea surface warms. This lack of plasticity could result in a mismatch with food resources.

    • Katharine Keogan
    • , Francis Daunt
    • , Sarah Wanless
    • , Richard A. Phillips
    • , Craig A. Walling
    • , Philippa Agnew
    • , David G. Ainley
    • , Tycho Anker-Nilssen
    • , Grant Ballard
    • , Robert T. Barrett
    • , Kerry J. Barton
    • , Claus Bech
    • , Peter Becker
    • , Per-Arvid Berglund
    • , Loïc Bollache
    • , Alexander L. Bond
    • , Sandra Bouwhuis
    • , Russell W. Bradley
    • , Zofia M. Burr
    • , Kees Camphuysen
    • , Paulo Catry
    • , Andre Chiaradia
    • , Signe Christensen-Dalsgaard
    • , Richard Cuthbert
    • , Nina Dehnhard
    • , Sébastien Descamps
    • , Tony Diamond
    • , George Divoky
    • , Hugh Drummond
    • , Katie M. Dugger
    • , Michael J. Dunn
    • , Louise Emmerson
    • , Kjell Einar Erikstad
    • , Jérôme Fort
    • , William Fraser
    • , Meritxell Genovart
    • , Olivier Gilg
    • , Jacob González-Solís
    • , José Pedro Granadeiro
    • , David Grémillet
    • , Jannik Hansen
    • , Sveinn A. Hanssen
    • , Mike Harris
    • , April Hedd
    • , Jefferson Hinke
    • , José Manuel Igual
    • , Jaime Jahncke
    • , Ian Jones
    • , Peter J. Kappes
    • , Johannes Lang
    • , Magdalene Langset
    • , Amélie Lescroël
    • , Svein-Håkon Lorentsen
    • , Phil O’B. Lyver
    • , Mark Mallory
    • , Børge Moe
    • , William A. Montevecchi
    • , David Monticelli
    • , Carolyn Mostello
    • , Mark Newell
    • , Lisa Nicholson
    • , Ian Nisbet
    • , Olof Olsson
    • , Daniel Oro
    • , Vivian Pattison
    • , Maud Poisbleau
    • , Tanya Pyk
    • , Flavio Quintana
    • , Jaime A. Ramos
    • , Raül Ramos
    • , Tone Kirstin Reiertsen
    • , Cristina Rodríguez
    • , Peter Ryan
    • , Ana Sanz-Aguilar
    • , Niels M. Schmidt
    • , Paula Shannon
    • , Benoit Sittler
    • , Colin Southwell
    • , Christopher Surman
    • , Walter S. Svagelj
    • , Wayne Trivelpiece
    • , Pete Warzybok
    • , Yutaka Watanuki
    • , Henri Weimerskirch
    • , Peter R. Wilson
    • , Andrew G. Wood
    • , Albert B. Phillimore
    •  & Sue Lewis
  • Letter |

    An organic carbon decomposition model, calibrated with laboratory incubations, indicates a greater production rate of CO2-C equivalents from waterlogged (compared to drained) permafrost soils, when the higher global warming potential of methane is factored in.

    • Christian Knoblauch
    • , Christian Beer
    • , Susanne Liebner
    • , Mikhail N. Grigoriev
    •  & Eva-Maria Pfeiffer
  • Letter |

    Glaciers outside Greenland and Antarctica have been rapidly losing mass. Contemporary ice declines are shown to be a response to past greenhouse gas emissions, with present mitigation efforts unlikely to be beneficial in preventing future short-term ice loss.

    • Ben Marzeion
    • , Georg Kaser
    • , Fabien Maussion
    •  & Nicolas Champollion
  • Letter |

    Agricultural soils can be targeted for carbon (C) sequestration. Research considering C and nitrogen (N) dynamics confirms that significant CO2 mitigation can be achieved, but after 20–30 years N inputs also need controlling to prevent the C sequestration being offset by N2O emissions.

    • Emanuele Lugato
    • , Adrian Leip
    •  & Arwyn Jones
  • Letter |

    The complexity of ecosystems could influence how warmer waters and acidification affect marine biota. In this study, whilst individual behaviours were affected by increased CO2, community dynamics buffered the impacts on fish and crustaceans.

    • Silvan U. Goldenberg
    • , Ivan Nagelkerken
    • , Emma Marangon
    • , Angélique Bonnet
    • , Camilo M. Ferreira
    •  & Sean D. Connell
  • Letter |

    Satellite measures of vegetation greenness, together with animal stocking data and key climatic factors, reveal interannual precipitation variability to be a significant constraint on global pasture productivity.

    • Lindsey L. Sloat
    • , James S. Gerber
    • , Leah H. Samberg
    • , William K. Smith
    • , Mario Herrero
    • , Laerte G. Ferreira
    • , Cécile M. Godde
    •  & Paul C. West
  • Letter |

    It has been suggested that lightning activity will increase with anthropogenic warming. However, the use of a physically based lightning parameterization—incorporating cloud ice fluxes—reveals global flash rates in 2100 may decrease by 15% under RCP8.5.

    • Declan L. Finney
    • , Ruth M. Doherty
    • , Oliver Wild
    • , David S. Stevenson
    • , Ian A. MacKenzie
    •  & Alan M. Blyth
  • Letter |

    A systematic review shows that climate–conflict research tends to focus on a few accessible regions characterized by violent conflict rather than those most vulnerable to climate change, which may inflate the perceived prevalence of links between climate change and violent conflict.

    • Courtland Adams
    • , Tobias Ide
    • , Jon Barnett
    •  & Adrien Detges
  • Letter |

    A synthesis of animal phenology shows that temperature primarily drives mid-latitude responses, with precipitation important at lower latitudes. Phylogeny and body size are associated with the strength of phenological shifts.

    • Jeremy M. Cohen
    • , Marc J. Lajeunesse
    •  & Jason R. Rohr
  • Letter |

    Uptake of anthropogenic CO2 changes the surface ocean inorganic carbon system. Analysis of observations shows an increase in the seasonal oceanic carbon cycle, amplifying the ocean acidification signal with implications for marine biota.

    • Peter Landschützer
    • , Nicolas Gruber
    • , Dorothee C. E. Bakker
    • , Irene Stemmler
    •  & Katharina D. Six