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  • In recent decades, India has witnessed a rapid pace of migration from areas with intensive agriculture to populated megacities, which are faced with increasing threat from climate hazards. Greater attention is needed for vulnerable new migrants who lack necessary resources when designing adaptation and mitigation policies.

    • Vittal Hari
    • Suman Dharmasthala
    • Rohini Kumar
  • Climate change mitigation and adaptation, including through nature-based measures, are urgently needed. Now mapping and valuation of global vegetated coastal and marine blue carbon ecosystems shows how interlinked countries are when dealing with climate change.

    • Tiziana Luisetti
    News & Views
  • Blue carbon ecosystems take up and store substantial amounts of carbon. This represents an important ecosystem service in the context of climate change, with coastal ecosystems contributing nearly US$200 bn yr1 to blue carbon wealth.

    • Christine Bertram
    • Martin Quaas
    • Wilfried Rickels
    Article Open Access
  • Shipping routes through the Canadian Arctic are examined under 1, 2 and 4 °C global warming across four vessel classes, including ice breakers, Arctic community resupply ships, and passenger and private vessels. All routes show longer shipping seasons and navigability as a result of sea ice loss.

    • Lawrence R. Mudryk
    • Jackie Dawson
    • Mike Brady
  • Global hydroclimate and atmospheric dynamics are tethered, and so is their future uncertainty. Despite this, scientists are increasingly able to identify climate change signals in noisy hydroclimate observations, aided by a growing line-up of climate model experiments and an ever-extending observational record.

  • Finance flows consistent with low-emission pathways and resilient development are central to the Paris Agreement, yet confusion remains about Article 2.1(c). Clarity is needed, particularly of its relationship with climate finance, to differentiate responsibility and enable suitable monitoring.

    • Luis H. Zamarioli
    • Pieter Pauw
    • Hugues Chenet
  • Legal cases to force governments to reduce emissions or to pursue compensation for climate change-related losses are increasing. The scientific evidence used in such cases is found to be lagging behind state-of-the-art climate science; using up-to-date methodologies could improve causation claims.

    • Rupert F. Stuart-Smith
    • Friederike E. L. Otto
    • Thom Wetzer
  • Success in STEM disciplines and careers is impacted by feelings of belonging, representation and safety. To celebrate Pride Month during June 2021, Nature Climate Change asked scientists and faculty members about their experience in research and academia, and their thoughts on making lasting, inclusive change.

    • Baird Langenbrunner (he/him)
  • High-mountain Asia streamflow is strongly impacted by snow and glacier melt. A regional model, combined with observations and climate projections, shows snowmelt decreased during 1979–2019 and was more dominant than glacier melt, and projections suggest declines that vary by river basin.

    • Philip D. A. Kraaijenbrink
    • Emmy E. Stigter
    • Walter W. Immerzeel
  • High-tide flooding (HTF) is more likely with sea-level rise. Projections along the United States coastline, considering likely sea-level rise and tidal amplitude cycles, suggest increased HTF event clustering in time and rapid increases in annual HTF frequency as early as the mid-2030s.

    • Philip R. Thompson
    • Matthew J. Widlansky
    • William Sweet
  • It is commonly assumed that the climate response to CO2 removals is equal in magnitude and opposite in sign to the response to CO2 emissions. The response, however, is asymmetric, meaning that offsetting CO2 emissions with equal removals could lead to a different climate than avoiding the emissions.

    • Kirsten Zickfeld
    • Deven Azevedo
    • H. Damon Matthews
  • Tropical rainfall exhibits cyclic north–south migration tracking the warmer hemisphere, and climate warming will delay this seasonally over land. Climate models and gridded precipitation data suggest a delay of about 4 days since 1979 is now detectable over Northern Hemisphere land and the Sahel.

    • Fengfei Song
    • L. Ruby Leung
    • Yun Qian
  • Global humidity increases with warming, but the United States Southwest has shown summer decreases since 1950, with the largest declines on hot days attributed to decreased soil moisture, not atmospheric moisture transport. Projections are uncertain due to model spread in precipitation trends.

    • Karen A. McKinnon
    • Andrew Poppick
    • Isla R. Simpson
  • Uncertainty in estimates of the economic impacts of climate change makes it difficult to evaluate the benefits of mitigation. This Perspective reviews methods for determining economic damages from biophysical impacts, highlights critical gaps and suggests priorities moving forward.

    • Franziska Piontek
    • Laurent Drouet
    • Massimo Tavoni