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  • Climate change is increasing ocean temperature, particularly in the surface waters. Here the authors show that accelerated surface warming in the North Pacific in the past decade is driven by shoaling of the ocean mixed layer with some dampening by increased latent heat loss from the ocean.

    • Zeng-Zhen Hu
    • Michael J. McPhaden
    • Yunyun Liu
    Brief Communication
  • Inadequate information in national adaptation policies limits the ability to track national adaptation progress in Africa. Enhancing coverage, consistency and robustness of these policies offers a clear path to establish effective, nationally led adaptation-tracking infrastructure.

    • Andreea C. Nowak
    • Lucy Njuguna
    • Todd S. Rosenstock
    Policy Brief
  • Tracking adaptation requires countries’ commitments as the baseline for measuring future progress. By analysing 65 African national adaptation documents, this research finds that most countries fail to provide internally consistent and operational plans, while efforts towards adequacy exist.

    • Andreea C. Nowak
    • Lucy Njuguna
    • Todd S. Rosenstock
    AnalysisOpen Access
  • Currently, no comprehensive scientific methodology of corporate risk quantification, in response to new disclosure regulations, has been proposed in the literature. Here we develop fundamental principles that are important for the appropriate use of climate scenario science in transition risk assessments.

    • Fouad Khan
    • Edward Byers
    • Keywan Riahi
  • The growth and yield of 3,652 wheat genotypes under past and simulated future climates indicate that adaptation to a wide range of environments will decrease by 8.7% for each 1°C of warming. Thus, future breeding strategies must deliver genetically diverse elite lines that can adapt to the warmer conditions and likely more diverse weather scenarios caused by climate variance.

    Research Briefing
  • Given the importance of crop breeding and adaptation for future food security, the authors investigate yield response of wheat cultivars under warming. They find low adaptation to recent warming and low phenotype stability across environments, with further reductions expected under future climates.

    • Wei Xiong
    • Matthew P. Reynolds
    • Feng Chen
  • Governments are increasingly using industrial policy to develop low-carbon economic sectors and catalyse the energy transition. A recent study provides a framework to explain why governments adopt different types of green industrial policy, depending on industry position in the global supply chain and types of uncertainty.

    • Jessica F. Green
    News & Views
  • Projections of the future climate of small island states and territories are currently limited by the coarse resolution of models. We call for rapid global and regional cooperation to develop projections compatible with small island scales, providing relevant local information and decision-making tools.

    • Jason P. Evans
    • Ali Belmadani
    • Alexandre Peltier
  • Small island states and territories have been leading climate action in many ways. In this issue, we highlight climate change research conducted on large ocean islands and how science can improve to help them adapt to changing environments.

  • Small island states and territories are often seen as particularly vulnerable to climate change, which affects the shape of the land, its ecosystems and the resources that people depend on. Nature Climate Change asked a selection of scientists from different island states and territories to discuss the role that climate science and action has in supporting island communities.

    • Jerome Aucan
    • Ameer Ebrahim
    • Sarina Theys
  • The authors combine field data with models of coastal geomorphology and bird behaviour and dynamics to understand the impact of sea-level rise on shorebird populations. They show that habitat quality is already declining and that the current focus on habitat quantity loss can underestimate threats.

    • Martijn van de Pol
    • Liam D. Bailey
    • Bruno J. Ens
  • The changing climate threatens water quality in lakes, particularly oxygen levels. Here the authors present evidence for northern lakes of rapidly reducing oxygen levels, mainly driven by longer stratification in the warm season, with implications for lake ecosystems.

    • Joachim Jansen
    • Gavin L. Simpson
    • Yves T. Prairie
    ArticleOpen Access
  • Observational data suggest a dramatic increase in the salinity contrast between the Atlantic and Pacific oceans over the course of the past half-century. Ocean dynamical processes driven by winds and warming, in addition to surface freshwater fluxes, make important contributions to basin-scale changes in ocean salinity.

    Research Briefing
  • Ocean salinity changes are thought to be dominated by freshwater fluxes. Here the authors show that amplification of the Atlantic–Pacific salinity contrast also involves wind- and ocean warming-driven processes, with larger salinity increases in the North Atlantic, relative to the North Pacific.

    • Ying Lu
    • Yuanlong Li
    • Fan Wang