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  • This Perspective discussed selective partitioning behaviors of biomolecules and small molecules and proposed that understanding the chemical properties that control their interactions within the condensates would promote drug development.

    • Henry R. Kilgore
    • Richard A. Young
  • Several venomous predators and pathogens use insulins to capture prey and to manipulate host physiology. This Review provides an overview of the discovery and potential biomedical application of these and other weaponized hormones found in nature.

    • Sophie Heiden Laugesen
    • Danny Hung-Chieh Chou
    • Helena Safavi-Hemami
    Review Article
  • Sea stars and sea cucumbers biosynthesize protective glycosylated steroids and triterpenes via divergent oxidosqualene cyclases (OSCs) that produce these distinct saponins in different species as well as in different tissues of a single species.

    • Ramesha Thimmappa
    • Shi Wang
    • Anne Osbourn
    Article Open Access
  • Antigen loading onto class I major histocompatibility complex (MHC-I) proteins relies on chaperones and protein flexibility. Researchers now provide new insight into the process, especially for the intriguing ‘non-classical’ MHC-I protein MR1, with implications for fundamental immunology and the development of novel immunotherapies.

    • Tatiana J. Rosales
    • Brian M. Baker
    News & Views
  • Carbon dioxide (CO2) is a product of cellular respiration that can also serve as a post-translational modification (PTM) through covalent protein modification. A new chemoproteomic strategy enables the capture of functional CO2-dependent carboxylation on lysine residues of proteins.

    • R. Justin Grams
    • Ku-Lung Hsu
    News & Views
  • MNK2 was identified as the target of a small molecule named CID661578 that can stimulate pancreatic β-cell generation in zebrafish, pig and human organoids. CID661578 prevents MNK2 from binding to eIF4G in the translation initiation complex.

    • Christos Karampelias
    • Kathleen Watt
    • Olov Andersson
    Article Open Access
  • The zinc-sensor protein Zur in a marine cyanobacterium is distinct from those in other bacteria in structure and location of its sensory zinc site, and facilitates growth across a range of zinc concentrations via activation of a metallothionein gene.

    • Alevtina Mikhaylina
    • Amira Z. Ksibe
    • Claudia A. Blindauer
    Article Open Access
  • The rising threat of antifungal resistance means that alternative therapeutics need to be considered. New research explores the biochemical basis of virulence inhibition by mucus glycans against the fungal pathogen Candida albicans.

    • Jehoshua Sharma
    • Rebecca S. Shapiro
    News & Views
  • Glycomic profiling of mucosal surfaces identified O-mucin glycoconjugate motifs that regulate Candida albicans virulence. Synthetic analogs based on these glycans suppress fungal filamentation, offering potential for antifungal development.

    • Julie Takagi
    • Kazuhiro Aoki
    • Katharina Ribbeck
  • A fungal ten-eleven translocation (TET) dioxygenase homolog, CcTet, is found to have both 5-methylcytosine (5mC) and N6-methyladenine (6mA) demethylase activity. Structure-based engineering of CcTet yielded a 6mA-specific demethylase, offering a useful tool for the manipulation and functional study of 6mA.

    • Sisi Li
    • Jiamu Du
    News & Views