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  • Efficiency is only one of the parameters involved in solar evaporation that should be improved to make it practical. Depending on the application, various factors of merit should be taken into consideration, as discussed in this Perspective.

    • Ning Xu
    • Jinlei Li
    • Jia Zhu
  • In this Perspective, the authors survey potential water-system-wide benefits of AI applications from catchments to end-users and then highlight potential systemic barriers, direct risks and exposures to cascading failures, which may prove catastrophic for communities. In response, they make three recommendations for safe and responsible deployment of AI across potable water supply and sewage disposal systems.

    • Catherine E. Richards
    • Asaf Tzachor
    • Richard Fenner
  • This Perspective characterizes the major challenges to open-access water data in China. A potential data management infrastructure to improve the collection, sharing, and use of water data is outlined.

    • Jingyu Lin
    • Brett A. Bryan
    • Zhifeng Yang
  • Drinking water treatment technologies are typically evaluated on the basis of narrow evaluation criteria, such as contaminant removal efficiency. This Perspective proposes additional user-centric criteria to evaluate the hidden and often gendered costs of water treatment technologies, including affordability, labour burden and user acceptance.

    • Katya Cherukumilli
    • Isha Ray
    • Amy J. Pickering
  • Decentralized water treatment technologies could help in addressing global key water issues. This Perspective reviews the literature on the psychological determinants of acceptance, support and behaviour change related to decentralized water treatment technologies and proposes a user-focused theory of change to guide the promotion of these technologies.

    • Nadja Contzen
    • Josianne Kollmann
    • Hans-Joachim Mosler
  • Global groundwater resources are under strain, with cascading effects on producers, food and fibre production systems, communities and ecosystems. In this Perspective, the authors call for a major shift in research, extension and policy priorities to build polycentric governance capacity and strategic planning tools to sustain aquifer-dependent communities.

    • Meagan E. Schipanski
    • Matthew R. Sanderson
    • Brent Auvermann
  • Recovering metals from wastewater and brine could augment metal stocks that are fundamental to modern technology. This Perspective assesses the potential of, and provides guidance for, recovering metals from wastewater and brine.

    • Ryan M. DuChanois
    • Nathanial J. Cooper
    • Menachem Elimelech