Adipose tissue plays a critical role in metabolic health and a better understanding of its biology will guide development of new therapeutics for metabolic diseases. The Keystone meeting on adipose tissue biology has historically been the premier communication venue for research in this area. Our specific goals for this meeting are to address key emerging questions, from physiological to molecular, facilitating synergy between established groups and providing new trainees with a better picture of critical knowledge gaps. These questions are: First, how do different adipose tissue depots contribute to systemic metabolism? Second, how many types of adipocytes exist, and how do they contribute to the functions of different depots? Third, how do adipocytes develop from progenitor cells, and how do elements such as immune cells, vasculature and innervation influence their development? Fourth, how do adipocyte lipid droplets and mitochondria develop, function and influence systemic metabolic homeostasis? We also seek to envision research on adipose tissue in relation to the broader topic of human health. Adipose tissue disfunction, as manifested by obesity and metabolic disease, disproportionally affects groups underrepresented in medicine and research. We will call attention to this inequity through a keynote address and a career development workshop. We will leverage the natural synergy between the meetings on adipose tissue and on bioenergetics with three joint sessions focused on a) mitochondria and their role in cellular and systemic metabolism, b) metabolomics with a focus on metabolic disease, and c) thermogenic adipose tissue.