Traditionally, metabolism and immunity have been perceived as two distinct systems with distinct functions: metabolism regulates the disposal and transformation of nutrients, whereas the immune system is responsible for host defense. However, in a broader sense, these two processes are both an organism’s response to stressors, with the aim of restoring homeostasis. An increasing amount of evidence has demonstrated that the chronic activation of the immune system associated with overnutrition may be deleterious, contributing importantly to diabetes and long-term complications, such as cardiovascular disorders. Such dysregulation of the immune system may reflect the duration and magnitude of the metabolic stress, along with genetic predispositions. Accordingly, anti-inflammatory treatments of metabolic diseases emerge as therapies interfering with the pathogenesis of these illnesses and offer disease-modifying potential. Therefore, it is critical that clinical translation be based on an understanding of the physiology and pathophysiology of the role of the immune system in metabolism. This conference will bring together basic scientists and clinicians from both disciplines in order to spark innovative ways of understanding the interactions between the immune system and metabolism. The conference organizers anticipate that the conference will lead to the development of novel therapeutic concepts based on the pathways underlying the pathogenesis of diseases rather than on the manifestation of symptoms belonging to a specific clinical discipline.