Arthropod vectors transmit several infectious agents that infect millions of people globally and cause over 700,000 deaths annually. Rapid unplanned urbanization, increased travel and trade bring humans into frequent contact with arthropod vectors, while climate change fuels their spread worldwide. Innovative concepts and technologies are strengthening vector control worldwide and redefining how to study these arthropods. Therefore, this Keystone Symposia conference will focus on cutting-edge areas of research, such as synthetic biology, microbiome and immunometabolism. The program was designed to embrace the reinvigorated aspects of arthropod vector epidemiology, physiology and reproduction. Furthermore, this conference is being held jointly with “Skin and Immune Crosstalk at Barrier Surfaces”. Entomologists, immunologists and microbiologists will discuss emerging insights into critical molecular mechanisms that occur at the vector-host interface. This conference will provide a collegial forum for intellectual exchange between investigators at various career levels, which will help to generate original thinking to tackle the complexity of vector biology. Currently, there is no high-profile venue to discuss biological mechanisms and disease transmission that occur and are influenced by arthropod vectors as well as the fundamental interactions between vectors, pathogens and host. The program will develop and explore central paradigms in vector biology, foster collaborations between investigators with distinct expertise and provide mentoring for the next generation of scientists.