Advances in cancer immunotherapy are rapidly transforming the treatment landscape across cancers, but a critical challenge in the field is understanding how we can better drive T cells into tumors, and hence make them available for mounting productive anti-tumor responses. The fields of viral and cancer immunity share many parallels, and insights learned from each area can expand our collective knowledge of how to address this challenge. Cancer vaccines are a valuable immunotherapeutic modality, capable of expanding the repertoire of tumor-specific T cells, and have the potential to be productively combined with complementary therapeutic approaches. Our specific aims are to share exciting recent clinical and scientific advances, including the identification of novel antigen targets, new understanding of how the tumor microenvironment is immunoregulated and modulated by cancer immunotherapies, and the development of novel therapeutic approaches. Together, the collective shared knowledge gained from interdisciplinary interactions from this meeting promise to open the path for consideration of novel approaches for the design of more effective cancer immunotherapy.