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Volume 629 Issue 8010, 2 May 2024

Exercise effects

It is no surprise that regular exercise is good for you, but the molecular mechanisms behind the health benefits remain poorly understood. In this week’s issue, the Molecular Transducers of Physical Activity Consortium (MoTrPAC) seeks to address this by profiling a range of changes that take place during endurance exercise. Working with male and female rats, the researchers measured changes to the transcriptome, epigenome, proteome, metabolome, lipidome and immunome in a broad array of tissues across eight weeks of treadmill-based exercise. They identified thousands of molecular changes that collectively offer insight into the benefits accrued to immune, metabolic and stress-response pathways as the body adapts to exercise.

Cover image: Nik Spencer/Nature

This Week

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  • News & Views

    • A parachute-like skin membrane, the patagium, evolved independently in several marsupial species. Genomic analysis suggests that this trait came about through different changes to the regulation of the same gene.

      • Darío G. Lupiáñez
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    • The sympathetic nervous system, which enables the fight-or-flight response, was thought to be present only in jawed vertebrates. Analysis of a jawless vertebrate suggests that this system might be a feature of all animals with a spine.

      • Uwe Ernsberger
      • Hermann Rohrer
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    • Bacteria make protein toxins to compete with other bacteria in microbial communities. A study of a common soil bacterium has revealed a previously unknown type of antibacterial toxin that forms a striking umbrella-like structure.

      • Sarah J. Coulthurst
      News & Views
    • By adapting methods for fabricating and testing conventional computer chips, researchers have brought silicon-based quantum computers closer to reality — and to accessing the immense benefits of a mature chipmaking industry.

      • Ruoyu Li
      News & Views
  • Articles

    • Analysis of the JWST/NIRSpec spectrum of the recently observed Lyman-break galaxy JADES-GS+53.15508-27.80178 revealed a redshift of z = 7.3, a Balmer break and a complete absence of nebular emission lines, indicating that quenching occurred only 700 million years after the Big Bang.

      • Tobias J. Looser
      • Francesco D’Eugenio
      • Jan Scholtz
      Article Open Access
    • We report observations of GRB 231115A, positionally coincident with the starburst galaxy M82, that unambiguously qualify this burst as a giant flare from a magnetar, which is a rare explosive event releasing gamma rays.

      • Sandro Mereghetti
      • Michela Rigoselli
      • Pietro Ubertini
    • The trapping of triply charged 229mTh3+ is described and its nuclear decay half-life determined, showing useful properties for the development of a nuclear clock and applications in the search for new physics.

      • Atsushi Yamaguchi
      • Yudai Shigekawa
      • Hidetoshi Katori
    • Using a cryogenic 300-mm wafer prober, a new approach for the testing of hundreds of industry-manufactured spin qubit devices at 1.6 K provides high-volume data on performance, allowing optimization of the complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor (CMOS)-compatible fabrication process.

      • Samuel Neyens
      • Otto K. Zietz
      • James S. Clarke
      Article Open Access
    • Use of a chain-ether-based solvent instead of tetrahydrofuran for lithium-mediated nitrogen reduction enables long-term continuous ammonia electrosynthesis with high efficiency and improved gas-phase ammonia distribution.

      • Shaofeng Li
      • Yuanyuan Zhou
      • Ib Chorkendorff
    • Datasets from in situ warming experiments across 28 arctic and alpine tundra sites covering  a span of less than 1 year up to 25 years show the importance of local soil conditions and warming-induced changes therein for future climatic impacts on ecosystem respiration.  

      • S. L. Maes
      • J. Dietrich
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    • An analysis of the rate at which isotherms are shifting in mountain regions worldwide identifies 17 key regions with particularly high vertical isotherm shift velocities, and provides insight into how these shifts affect species ranges.

      • Wei-Ping Chan
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      • Sheng-Feng Shen
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    • Challenging the belief that sympathetic ganglia are an innovation of jawed vertebrates, a study reports the presence of sympathetic neurons in an extant jawless vertebrate, the sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus.

      • Brittany M. Edens
      • Jan Stundl
      • Marianne E. Bronner
    • Patagia—the mammalian gliding membrane—repeatedly originated through a process of convergent genomic evolution, whereby the regulation of Emx2 was altered by distinct cis-regulatory elements in independently evolved species.

      • Jorge A. Moreno
      • Olga Dudchenko
      • Ricardo Mallarino
      Article Open Access
    • A comparison of two complete sets of human centromeres reveals that the centromeres show at least a 4.1-fold increase in single-nucleotide variation compared with their unique flanks, and up to 3-fold variation in size, resulting from an accelerated mutation rate.

      • Glennis A. Logsdon
      • Allison N. Rozanski
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      Article Open Access
    • The Human Muscle Ageing Cell Atlas provides a series of integrated cellular and molecular explanations for sarcopenia and frailty development in advanced ages.

      • Yiwei Lai
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    • Glucocorticoids reprogram the mitochondrial metabolism of macrophages, resulting in increased and sustained production of the anti-inflammatory metabolite itaconate and, as a consequence, inhibition of the inflammatory response.

      • Jean-Philippe Auger
      • Max Zimmermann
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    • The transcription factor FOXO1 has a key role in human T cell memory, and manipulating FOXO1 expression could provide a way to enhance CAR T cell therapies by increasing CAR T cell persistence and antitumour activity.

      • Alexander E. Doan
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      • Evan W. Weber
      Article Open Access
    • Cryo-electron microscopy structures of the human Integrator complex in three different functional states shed light on how Integrator terminates RNA polymerase II (Pol II) transcription by disengaging Pol II from the DNA template.

      • Isaac Fianu
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      • Patrick Cramer
      Article Open Access
    • A study reports structures of an insect taste receptor in the absence and presence of different sugars, providing details on the molecular basis of sugar detection and selectivity in insects.

      • João Victor Gomes
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      Article Open Access
    • Monoamines and neurotoxicants share a binding pocket in VMAT1 featuring polar sites for specificity and a wrist-and-fist shape for versatility, and monoamine enrichment in storage vesicles arises from dominant import via favoured lumenal-open transition of VMAT1 and protonation-precluded binding during its cytoplasmic-open transition.

      • Jin Ye
      • Huaping Chen
      • Weikai Li
  • Matters Arising

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