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Volume 620 Issue 7975, 24 August 2023

Tropical gains

Protected areas, such as national parks and nature reserves, form part of a strategy to preserve biodiversity, but how effective they are within and outside their boundaries is not always clear. In this week’s issue, Jedediah Brodie and his colleagues examine protected areas in mega-diverse southeast Asia to assess their effects on tropical biodiversity. By accounting for site accessibility and the 3D structure of forests, the researchers were able to determine that reserves increased the diversity of birds and mammals, such as the northern pygmy loris (Xanthonycticebus intermedius) pictured on the cover, both inside their boundaries and in the surrounding landscape.

Cover image: Chien C. Lee

This Week

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News in Focus

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Books & Arts

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  • News & Views

    • As the resources required by artificial intelligence increase unsustainably, an analog design provides an energy-efficient alternative to digital computer chips — and one that is ideally suited to neural-network computations.

      • Hechen Wang
      News & Views
    • A genetic analysis provides the most-detailed glimpse yet of how genetic variants in nuclear DNA regulate the copy number and variability of DNA housed in organelles called mitochondria.

      • Sonia Boscenco
      • Ed Reznik
      News & Views
    • A newly discovered fossil of an extinct whale from Peru indicates that the animal’s skeleton was unexpectedly enormous. This finding challenges our understanding of body-size evolution.

      • J. G. M. Thewissen
      • David A. Waugh
      News & Views
    • Understanding the diverse ways in which the natural world provides value aids informed policy decisions. The generation of a detailed catalogue of this diversity, and ways to assess values, paves the way to a more sustainable future.

      • Giulia Sajeva
      News & Views
  • Reviews

    • This Review provides a perspective on the development of non-cancer therapies based on human genetics studies and suggests measures that can be taken to streamline the pipeline from initial genetic discovery to approved therapy.

      • Katerina Trajanoska
      • Claude Bhérer
      • Vincent Mooser
      Review Article
  • Articles

    • The detection of thermal emission from the rocky exoplanet TRAPPIST-1 c using the Mid-Infrared Instrument on the James Webb Space Telescope reveals a dayside brightness temperature that disfavours a thick, CO2-rich atmosphere.

      • Sebastian Zieba
      • Laura Kreidberg
      • Gabrielle Suissa
      Article Open Access
    • Transport measurements of dual-gated devices constructed by slightly rotating a monolayer graphene sheet atop a thin bulk graphite crystal are performed, showing that moiré potential transforms the electronic properties of an entire graphitic thin film.

      • Dacen Waters
      • Ellis Thompson
      • Matthew Yankowitz
    • The electronic states in three-dimensional crystals such as graphite can be tuned by a superlattice potential occurring at the interface with crystallographically aligned hexagonal boron nitride.

      • Ciaran Mullan
      • Sergey Slizovskiy
      • Artem Mishchenko
      Article Open Access
    • A moiré quasicrystal constructed by twisting three layers of graphene with two different twist angles shows high tunability between a periodic-like regime at low energies and a strongly quasiperiodic regime at higher energies alongside strong interactions and superconductivity.

      • Aviram Uri
      • Sergio C. de la Barrera
      • Pablo Jarillo-Herrero
    • Many aspects of materials chemistry rely on singlet–triplet spin conversion, but spin–vibronic effects are shown to accelerate the process when vibronic coupling causes the quantum-mechanical mixing of spin states.

      • Shahnawaz Rafiq
      • Nicholas P. Weingartz
      • Lin X. Chen
    • Distributed acoustic sensing technology is utilized to image four high-frequency rupture subevents of the 2021 Antelope Valley, California, earthquake; the results indicate that the subevents are due to the breaking of fault asperities.

      • Jiaxuan Li
      • Taeho Kim
      • Zhongwen Zhan
    • Following a wide-ranging review of studies, reports and policies about nature’s multiple values, combinations of values-centred approaches are proposed to improve valuation of nature, address barriers to uptake in decision-making, and make transformative changes towards more just and sustainable futures.

      • Unai Pascual
      • Patricia Balvanera
      • Eglee Zent
      Article Open Access
    • Surveys conducted in 15 European countries in 2016 and 2022 show stable attitudes towards asylum seekers and refugees with different attributes over this period with a slight increase in support for asylum seekers in general.

      • Kirk Bansak
      • Jens Hainmueller
      • Dominik Hangartner
      Article Open Access
    • Lactate produced by dendritic cells (DCs) suppresses T-cell-mediated autoimmunity through a mechanism in which lactate activates HIF-1α–NDUFA4L2 signalling in DCs and thereby limits DC-mediated pro-inflammatory responses such as the development of encephalitogenic T cells.

      • Liliana M. Sanmarco
      • Joseph M. Rone
      • Francisco J. Quintana
    • This study highlights the role of mitochondrial complex I-dependent NAD+ regeneration in directing lung epithelial cell fate during postnatal alveolar development by preventing pathological integrated stress response induction.

      • SeungHye Han
      • Minho Lee
      • Navdeep S. Chandel
      Article Open Access
    • Cryo-electron microscopy structures and mass spectrometry analyses show that TAR DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43) forms amyloid filaments with a distinct fold in type A frontotemporal lobar degeneration with TDP-43 pathology (FTLD-TDP) compared with TDP-43 filaments in type B FTLD-TDP and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

      • Diana Arseni
      • Renren Chen
      • Benjamin Ryskeldi-Falcon
      Article Open Access
    • Structures of the glucagon receptor bound to β-arrestin 1 are reported, providing further information about the arrestin-mediated modulation of G protein-coupled receptors.

      • Kun Chen
      • Chenhui Zhang
      • Beili Wu
      Article Open Access
  • Matters Arising

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