Volume 587 Issue 7834, 19 November 2020

Facing facts

Facial-recognition systems have long been used at airport borders and on smartphones, but they are increasingly extending their reach into both public and private spaces. In this special issue, Nature probes the power — and the pitfalls — of the technology. One News Feature examines the inaccuracies and biases displayed by current systems. Another feature lifts the lid on ‘smart cities’ and how a lack of regulation and oversight could erode civil liberties. A third article discusses the growing concerns over the ethics of research studies in facial recognition. As governments and institutions seek to capitalize on this burgeoning technology, it is clear the field must take action to prevent abuse.

Cover image: Ashley Mackenzie

This Week

News in Focus

Books & Arts

Opinion

    Comment

  • Comment |

    Avoid unwarranted certainty, neat narratives and partisan presentation; strive to inform, not persuade.

    • Michael Blastland
    • , Alexandra L. J. Freeman
    • , Sander van der Linden
    • , Theresa M. Marteau
    •  & David Spiegelhalter
  • Comment |

    The pandemic has temporarily closed mines, factories and borders and destabilized flows of cobalt, lithium and other metals that are crucial for batteries, wind turbines and solar panels.

    • Ata Akcil
    • , Zhi Sun
    •  & Sandeep Panda

Work

Research

    News & Views

  • News & Views |

    Atmospheric particles that increase levels of cellular oxidants when inhaled might be especially harmful. An analysis reveals which emissions should be limited to minimize the potential adverse health effects of such particles in Europe.

    • Rodney Weber
  • News & Views |

    Our understanding of how mammalian embryos develop is based largely on mice. A study now reveals striking similarities and intriguing differences between mouse, cow and human embryos.

    • Jennifer L. Watts
    •  & Amy Ralston
  • News & Views |

    An analysis of worldwide data finds that human mobility has a hierarchical structure. A proposed model that accounts for such hierarchies reproduces differences in mobility behaviour across genders and levels of urbanization.

    • Elsa Arcaute
  • News & Views |

    When determining whether gut microbes affect human health, it is hard to distinguish between a causal and a correlative relationship. Analysis of microbial links to human traits and habits correlated with disease offers a step forward.

    • Sigal Leviatan
    •  & Eran Segal
  • News & Views |

    Understanding what contributes to the development of severe COVID-19 would be of great clinical benefit. Analysis of people in whom this occurred pinpoints a key role for the signalling pathway mediated by type I interferon proteins.

    • Eric Meffre
    •  & Akiko Iwasaki
  • Perspective

  • Perspective |

    The LifeTime initiative is an ambitious, multidisciplinary programme that aims to improve healthcare by tracking individual human cells during disease processes and responses to treatment in order to develop and implement cell-based interceptive medicine in Europe.

    • Nikolaus Rajewsky
    • , Geneviève Almouzni
    • , Stanislaw A. Gorski
    • , Stein Aerts
    • , Ido Amit
    • , Michela G. Bertero
    • , Christoph Bock
    • , Annelien L. Bredenoord
    • , Giacomo Cavalli
    • , Susanna Chiocca
    • , Hans Clevers
    • , Bart De Strooper
    • , Angelika Eggert
    • , Jan Ellenberg
    • , Xosé M. Fernández
    • , Marek Figlerowicz
    • , Susan M. Gasser
    • , Norbert Hubner
    • , Jørgen Kjems
    • , Jürgen A. Knoblich
    • , Grietje Krabbe
    • , Peter Lichter
    • , Sten Linnarsson
    • , Jean-Christophe Marine
    • , John C. Marioni
    • , Marc A. Marti-Renom
    • , Mihai G. Netea
    • , Dörthe Nickel
    • , Marcelo Nollmann
    • , Halina R. Novak
    • , Helen Parkinson
    • , Stefano Piccolo
    • , Inês Pinheiro
    • , Ana Pombo
    • , Christian Popp
    • , Wolf Reik
    • , Sergio Roman-Roman
    • , Philip Rosenstiel
    • , Joachim L. Schultze
    • , Oliver Stegle
    • , Amos Tanay
    • , Giuseppe Testa
    • , Dimitris Thanos
    • , Fabian J. Theis
    • , Maria-Elena Torres-Padilla
    • , Alfonso Valencia
    • , Céline Vallot
    • , Alexander van Oudenaarden
    • , Marie Vidal
    • , Thierry Voet
    • , Lavinia Alberi
    • , Stephanie Alexander
    • , Theodore Alexandrov
    • , Ernest Arenas
    • , Claudia Bagni
    • , Robert Balderas
    • , Andrea Bandelli
    • , Burkhard Becher
    • , Matthias Becker
    • , Niko Beerenwinkel
    • , Monsef Benkirame
    • , Marc Beyer
    • , Wendy Bickmore
    • , Erik E. A. L. Biessen
    • , Niklas Blomberg
    • , Ingmar Blumcke
    • , Bernd Bodenmiller
    • , Barbara Borroni
    • , Dimitrios T. Boumpas
    • , Thomas Bourgeron
    • , Sarion Bowers
    • , Dries Braeken
    • , Catherine Brooksbank
    • , Nils Brose
    • , Hilgo Bruining
    • , Jo Bury
    • , Nicolo Caporale
    • , Giorgio Cattoretti
    • , Nadia Chabane
    • , Hervé Chneiweiss
    • , Stuart A. Cook
    • , Paolo Curatolo
    • , Marien I. de Jonge
    • , Bart Deplancke
    • , Bart De Strooper
    • , Peter de Witte
    • , Stefanie Dimmeler
    • , Bogdan Draganski
    • , Anna Drews
    • , Costica Dumbrava
    • , Stefan Engelhardt
    • , Thomas Gasser
    • , Evangelos J. Giamarellos-Bourboulis
    • , Caroline Graff
    • , Dominic Grün
    • , Ivo Gut
    • , Oskar Hansson
    • , David C. Henshall
    • , Anna Herland
    • , Peter Heutink
    • , Stephane R. B. Heymans
    • , Holger Heyn
    • , Meritxell Huch
    • , Inge Huitinga
    • , Paulina Jackowiak
    • , Karin R. Jongsma
    • , Laurent Journot
    • , Jan Philipp Junker
    • , Shauna Katz
    • , Jeanne Kehren
    • , Stefan Kempa
    • , Paulus Kirchhof
    • , Christine Klein
    • , Natalia Koralewska
    • , Jan O. Korbel
    • , Malte Kühnemund
    • , Angus I. Lamond
    • , Elsa Lauwers
    • , Isabelle Le Ber
    • , Ville Leinonen
    • , Alejandro Lopez Tobon
    • , Emma Lundberg
    • , Astrid Lunkes
    • , Henrike Maatz
    • , Matthias Mann
    • , Luca Marelli
    • , Vera Matser
    • , Paul M. Matthews
    • , Fatima Mechta-Grigoriou
    • , Radhika Menon
    • , Anne F. Nielsen
    • , Massimiliano Pagani
    • , R. Jeroen Pasterkamp
    • , Asla Pitkänen
    • , Valentin Popescu
    • , Cyril Pottier
    • , Alain Puisieux
    • , Rosa Rademakers
    • , Dory Reiling
    • , Orly Reiner
    • , Daniel Remondini
    • , Craig Ritchie
    • , Jonathan D. Rohrer
    • , Antoine-Emmanuel Saliba
    • , Raquel Sanchez-Valle
    • , Amedeo Santosuosso
    • , Arnold Sauter
    • , Richard A. Scheltema
    • , Philip Scheltens
    • , Herbert B. Schiller
    • , Anja Schneider
    • , Philip Seibler
    • , Kelly Sheehan-Rooney
    • , David Shields
    • , Kristel Sleegers
    • , August B. Smit
    • , Kenneth G. C. Smith
    • , Ilse Smolders
    • , Matthis Synofzik
    • , Wai Long Tam
    • , Sarah Teichmann
    • , Maria Thom
    • , Margherita Y. Turco
    • , Heleen M. M. van Beusekom
    • , Rik Vandenberghe
    • , Silvie Van den Hoecke
    • , Ibo Van de Poel
    • , Andre van der Ven
    • , Julie van der Zee
    • , Jan van Lunzen
    • , Geert van Minnebruggen
    • , Alexander van Oudenaarden
    • , Wim Van Paesschen
    • , John van Swieten
    • , Remko van Vught
    • , Matthijs Verhage
    • , Patrik Verstreken
    • , Carlo Emanuele Villa
    • , Jörg Vogel
    • , Christof von Kalle
    • , Jörn Walter
    • , Sarah Weckhuysen
    • , Wilko Weichert
    • , Louisa Wood
    • , Anette-Gabriele Ziegler
    •  & Frauke Zipp
  • Articles

  • Article |

    Observations and stellar evolution models of a blue ring nebula and its central star (TYC 2597-735-1) suggest that the remnant star merged with a lower-mass companion several thousand years ago.

    • Keri Hoadley
    • , D. Christopher Martin
    • , Brian D. Metzger
    • , Mark Seibert
    • , Andrew McWilliam
    • , Ken J. Shen
    • , James D. Neill
    • , Gudmundur Stefansson
    • , Andrew Monson
    •  & Bradley E. Schaefer
  • Article |

    Quantum simulation in a 71-site optical lattice certifies gauge invariance, showing how this essential property of lattice gauge theories can be maintained across a quantum phase transition.

    • Bing Yang
    • , Hui Sun
    • , Robert Ott
    • , Han-Yi Wang
    • , Torsten V. Zache
    • , Jad C. Halimeh
    • , Zhen-Sheng Yuan
    • , Philipp Hauke
    •  & Jian-Wei Pan
  • Article |

    A theoretical model in the form of a stochastic differential equation is proposed that describes, more accurately than previous models, the population evolution of cities, revealing that rare but very large interurban migration is a dominant factor.

    • Vincent Verbavatz
    •  & Marc Barthelemy
  • Article |

    A model shows that human mobility is organized within hierarchical containers that coincide with familiar scales and that a power-law distribution emerges when movements between different containers are combined.

    • Laura Alessandretti
    • , Ulf Aslak
    •  & Sune Lehmann
  • Article |

    Spectroscopic studies and theoretical calculations of the electrocatalytic oxygen evolution reaction establish that reaction rates depend on the amount of charge stored in the electrocatalyst, and not on the applied potential.

    • Hong Nhan Nong
    • , Lorenz J. Falling
    • , Arno Bergmann
    • , Malte Klingenhof
    • , Hoang Phi Tran
    • , Camillo Spöri
    • , Rik Mom
    • , Janis Timoshenko
    • , Guido Zichittella
    • , Axel Knop-Gericke
    • , Simone Piccinin
    • , Javier Pérez-Ramírez
    • , Beatriz Roldan Cuenya
    • , Robert Schlögl
    • , Peter Strasser
    • , Detre Teschner
    •  & Travis E. Jones
  • Article |

    Observations and air-quality modelling reveal that the sources of particulate matter and oxidative potential in Europe are different, implying that reducing mass concentrations of particulate matter alone may not reduce oxidative potential.

    • Kaspar R. Daellenbach
    • , Gaëlle Uzu
    • , Jianhui Jiang
    • , Laure-Estelle Cassagnes
    • , Zaira Leni
    • , Athanasia Vlachou
    • , Giulia Stefenelli
    • , Francesco Canonaco
    • , Samuël Weber
    • , Arjo Segers
    • , Jeroen J. P. Kuenen
    • , Martijn Schaap
    • , Olivier Favez
    • , Alexandre Albinet
    • , Sebnem Aksoyoglu
    • , Josef Dommen
    • , Urs Baltensperger
    • , Marianne Geiser
    • , Imad El Haddad
    • , Jean-Luc Jaffrezo
    •  & André S. H. Prévôt
  • Article |

    A yeast clonal descendant of an ancient hybridization event is identified and sheds light on the early evolution of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Alpechin lineage and its abundant Saccharomyces paradoxus introgressions.

    • Melania D’Angiolo
    • , Matteo De Chiara
    • , Jia-Xing Yue
    • , Agurtzane Irizar
    • , Simon Stenberg
    • , Karl Persson
    • , Agnès Llored
    • , Benjamin Barré
    • , Joseph Schacherer
    • , Roberto Marangoni
    • , Eric Gilson
    • , Jonas Warringer
    •  & Gianni Liti
  • Article |

    The onset of maternal behaviour in mice involves an interaction between intrinsic tuning of auditory cortical neurons and experience-dependent plasticity.

    • Jennifer K. Schiavo
    • , Silvana Valtcheva
    • , Chloe J. Bair-Marshall
    • , Soomin C. Song
    • , Kathleen A. Martin
    •  & Robert C. Froemke
  • Article |

    Timing and position of spontaneously arising waves of activity in the visual cortex predict the sensitivity of visual perception in awake, behaving marmosets (Callithrix jacchus).

    • Zachary W. Davis
    • , Lyle Muller
    • , Julio Martinez-Trujillo
    • , Terrence Sejnowski
    •  & John H. Reynolds
  • Article |

    Comparative analysis of human, cow and mouse embryos shows that a mechanism involving atypical protein kinase C initiates the trophectoderm program during the morula stage in these three species.

    • Claudia Gerri
    • , Afshan McCarthy
    • , Gregorio Alanis-Lobato
    • , Andrej Demtschenko
    • , Alexandre Bruneau
    • , Sophie Loubersac
    • , Norah M. E. Fogarty
    • , Daniel Hampshire
    • , Kay Elder
    • , Phil Snell
    • , Leila Christie
    • , Laurent David
    • , Hilde Van de Velde
    • , Ali A. Fouladi-Nashta
    •  & Kathy K. Niakan
  • Article |

    A multi-organ circuit is activated in female flies after mating, leading to changes in enteric neurons that increase food intake.

    • Dafni Hadjieconomou
    • , George King
    • , Pedro Gaspar
    • , Alessandro Mineo
    • , Laura Blackie
    • , Tomotsune Ameku
    • , Chris Studd
    • , Alex de Mendoza
    • , Fengqiu Diao
    • , Benjamin H. White
    • , André E. X. Brown
    • , Pierre-Yves Plaçais
    • , Thomas Préat
    •  & Irene Miguel-Aliaga
  • Article |

    Heart atria produce a large pool of calcitonin (previously well-recognized as a thyroid-secreted hormone with roles in calcium and bone metabolism) that in the heart acts as a paracrine signal controlling atrial fibrosis and fibrillation.

    • Lucia M. Moreira
    • , Abhijit Takawale
    • , Mohit Hulsurkar
    • , David A. Menassa
    • , Agne Antanaviciute
    • , Satadru K. Lahiri
    • , Neelam Mehta
    • , Neil Evans
    • , Constantinos Psarros
    • , Paul Robinson
    • , Alexander J. Sparrow
    • , Marc-Antoine Gillis
    • , Neil Ashley
    • , Patrice Naud
    • , Javier Barallobre-Barreiro
    • , Konstantinos Theofilatos
    • , Angela Lee
    • , Mary Norris
    • , Michele V. Clarke
    • , Patricia K. Russell
    • , Barbara Casadei
    • , Shoumo Bhattacharya
    • , Jeffrey D. Zajac
    • , Rachel A. Davey
    • , Martin Sirois
    • , Adam Mead
    • , Alison Simmons
    • , Manuel Mayr
    • , Rana Sayeed
    • , George Krasopoulos
    • , Charles Redwood
    • , Keith M. Channon
    • , Jean-Claude Tardif
    • , Xander H. T. Wehrens
    • , Stanley Nattel
    •  & Svetlana Reilly
  • Article |

    Viral infection of the respiratory system induces exuberant fibroblast activity, resulting in extensive remodelling of the extracellular matrix and cytokine release, which promote immune cell infiltration of the affected area at the expense of respiratory function.

    • David F. Boyd
    • , E. Kaitlynn Allen
    • , Adrienne G. Randolph
    • , Xi-zhi J. Guo
    • , Yunceng Weng
    • , Catherine J. Sanders
    • , Resha Bajracharya
    • , Natalie K. Lee
    • , Clifford S. Guy
    • , Peter Vogel
    • , Wenda Guan
    • , Yimin Li
    • , Xiaoqing Liu
    • , Tanya Novak
    • , Margaret M. Newhams
    • , Thomas P. Fabrizio
    • , Nicholas Wohlgemuth
    • , Peter M. Mourani
    • , Michele Kong
    • , Ronald C. Sanders Jr
    • , Katherine Irby
    • , Katri Typpo
    • , Barry Markovitz
    • , Natalie Cvijanovich
    • , Heidi Flori
    • , Adam Schwarz
    • , Nick Anas
    • , Peter Mourani
    • , Angela Czaja
    • , Gwenn McLaughlin
    • , Matthew Paden
    • , Keiko Tarquinio
    • , Bria M. Coates
    • , Neethi Pinto
    • , Juliane Bubeck Wardenburg
    • , Adrienne G. Randolph
    • , Anna A. Agan
    • , Tanya Novak
    • , Margaret M. Newhams
    • , Stephen C. Kurachek
    • , Mary E. Hartman
    • , Allan Doctor
    • , Edward J. Truemper
    • , Sidharth Mahapatra
    • , Kate G. Ackerman
    • , L. Eugene Daugherty
    • , Mark W. Hall
    • , Neal Thomas
    • , Scott L. Weiss
    • , Julie Fitzgerald
    • , Renee Higgerson
    • , Laura L. Loftis
    • , Rainer G. Gedeit
    • , Marc-André Dugas
    • , Thomas N. Wight
    • , Stacey Schultz-Cherry
    • , Stephania A. Cormier
    • , Kathryn Shaw-Saliba
    • , Andrew Pekosz
    • , Richard E. Rothman
    • , Kuan-Fu Chen
    • , Zifeng Yang
    • , Richard J. Webby
    • , Nanshan Zhong
    • , Jeremy Chase Crawford
    •  & Paul G. Thomas
  • Article |

    IgA-secreting plasma cells that originate in the intestine are found in the meninges, where they protect the brain against pathogens.

    • Zachary Fitzpatrick
    • , Gordon Frazer
    • , Ashley Ferro
    • , Simon Clare
    • , Nicolas Bouladoux
    • , John Ferdinand
    • , Zewen Kelvin Tuong
    • , Maria Luciana Negro-Demontel
    • , Nitin Kumar
    • , Ondrej Suchanek
    • , Tamara Tajsic
    • , Katherine Harcourt
    • , Kirsten Scott
    • , Rachel Bashford-Rogers
    • , Adel Helmy
    • , Daniel S. Reich
    • , Yasmine Belkaid
    • , Trevor D. Lawley
    • , Dorian B. McGavern
    •  & Menna R. Clatworthy
  • Article |

    The evolution of myeloid malignancies is investigated using combined single-cell sequencing and immunophenotypic analysis.

    • Linde A. Miles
    • , Robert L. Bowman
    • , Tiffany R. Merlinsky
    • , Isabelle S. Csete
    • , Aik T. Ooi
    • , Robert Durruthy-Durruthy
    • , Michael Bowman
    • , Christopher Famulare
    • , Minal A. Patel
    • , Pedro Mendez
    • , Chrysanthi Ainali
    • , Benjamin Demaree
    • , Cyrille L. Delley
    • , Adam R. Abate
    • , Manimozhi Manivannan
    • , Sombeet Sahu
    • , Aaron D. Goldberg
    • , Kelly L. Bolton
    • , Ahmet Zehir
    • , Raajit Rampal
    • , Martin P. Carroll
    • , Sara E. Meyer
    • , Aaron D. Viny
    •  & Ross L. Levine
  • Article |

    The molecular steps that lead to the disaggregation of amyloid fibrils are shown to involve the synergistic action of HSP70 and its co-chaperones DNAJB1 and HSP110.

    • Anne S. Wentink
    • , Nadinath B. Nillegoda
    • , Jennifer Feufel
    • , Gabrielė Ubartaitė
    • , Carolyn P. Schneider
    • , Paolo De Los Rios
    • , Janosch Hennig
    • , Alessandro Barducci
    •  & Bernd Bukau
  • Article |

    The binding and activation of HSP70 by class B J-domain proteins is subject to an autoinhibitory regulatory mechanism that controls substrate targeting to HSP70 and is required for the disaggregation of amyloid fibres.

    • Ofrah Faust
    • , Meital Abayev-Avraham
    • , Anne S. Wentink
    • , Michael Maurer
    • , Nadinath B. Nillegoda
    • , Nir London
    • , Bernd Bukau
    •  & Rina Rosenzweig
  • Article |

    Structures of the assembled matrix protein 1 of influenza A virus in intact virus particles and of oligomers of this protein reconstituted in vitro reveal mechanisms of assembly and disassembly of influenza virus.

    • Julia Peukes
    • , Xiaoli Xiong
    • , Simon Erlendsson
    • , Kun Qu
    • , William Wan
    • , Leslie J. Calder
    • , Oliver Schraidt
    • , Susann Kummer
    • , Stefan M. V. Freund
    • , Hans-Georg Kräusslich
    •  & John A. G. Briggs
  • Article |

    Using cryo-electron microscopy, the authors report the structures of G-protein-coupled bile acid receptor–Gs complexes and reveal the structural basis of bile acid recognition.

    • Fan Yang
    • , Chunyou Mao
    • , Lulu Guo
    • , Jingyu Lin
    • , Qianqian Ming
    • , Peng Xiao
    • , Xiang Wu
    • , Qingya Shen
    • , Shimeng Guo
    • , Dan-Dan Shen
    • , Ruirui Lu
    • , Linqi Zhang
    • , Shenming Huang
    • , Yuqi Ping
    • , Chenlu Zhang
    • , Cheng Ma
    • , Kai Zhang
    • , Xiaoying Liang
    • , Yuemao Shen
    • , Fajun Nan
    • , Fan Yi
    • , Vincent C. Luca
    • , Jiuyao Zhou
    • , Changtao Jiang
    • , Jin-Peng Sun
    • , Xin Xie
    • , Xiao Yu
    •  & Yan Zhang

Amendments & Corrections

Nature Outlook

  • Nature Outlook |

    Lung cancer

    Lung cancer kills about 2 million people annually — more than any other cancer. But the development of more-effective therapies and means of diagnosis provide some glimmers of hope.

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