Volume 586 Issue 7830, 22 October 2020

Vaccine design

The cover image draws on aspects of Bauhaus artist Paul Klee’s famous notebooks to reimagine the quest for a vaccine against SARS-CoV-2. The drive to create an effective vaccine to mitigate the COVID-19 pandemic has seen researchers move from genetic sequence of the virus to clinical trials at unprecedented speed. This week’s issue features a number of papers that probe design strategies and clinical trial results for vaccine candidates to combat the virus. In addition, a Review presents a round-up of vaccines in development, noting that signs so far suggest that a safe and effective vaccine could be realized on a timescale of months rather than years.

Cover image: Nik Spencer for Nature.

This Week

News in Focus

Books & Arts

Opinion

Work

Research

    News & Views

  • News & Views |

    Leading COVID-19 vaccine candidates have progressed through laboratory tests at record speed. Two early clinical trials suggest that immunization delivers a favourable immune response and safety profile, but questions remain.

    • Christian Gaebler
    •  & Michel C. Nussenzweig
  • News & Views |

    Sequencing the genomes of individual skin cells called melanocytes has revealed a rich landscape of DNA changes. These insights shed light on the origins of melanoma, an aggressive type of cancer.

    • Inigo Martincorena
  • News & Views |

    An analysis of seismic data reveals the location and quantity of melted rock, known as melt, in Earth’s upper mantle. The results show how these factors are correlated with the movement of the planet’s tectonic plates.

    • Laura Cobden
  • Reviews

  • Review Article |

    The findings of a World Health Organization expert working group that is developing animal models to test vaccines and therapeutic agents for the treatment of COVID-19, and their relevance for preclinical testing, are reviewed.

    • César Muñoz-Fontela
    • , William E. Dowling
    • , Simon G. P. Funnell
    • , Pierre-S. Gsell
    • , A. Ximena Riveros-Balta
    • , Randy A. Albrecht
    • , Hanne Andersen
    • , Ralph S. Baric
    • , Miles W. Carroll
    • , Marco Cavaleri
    • , Chuan Qin
    • , Ian Crozier
    • , Kai Dallmeier
    • , Leon de Waal
    • , Emmie de Wit
    • , Leen Delang
    • , Erik Dohm
    • , W. Paul Duprex
    • , Darryl Falzarano
    • , Courtney L. Finch
    • , Matthew B. Frieman
    • , Barney S. Graham
    • , Lisa E. Gralinski
    • , Kate Guilfoyle
    • , Bart L. Haagmans
    • , Geraldine A. Hamilton
    • , Amy L. Hartman
    • , Sander Herfst
    • , Suzanne J. F. Kaptein
    • , William B. Klimstra
    • , Ivana Knezevic
    • , Philip R. Krause
    • , Jens H. Kuhn
    • , Roger Le Grand
    • , Mark G. Lewis
    • , Wen-Chun Liu
    • , Pauline Maisonnasse
    • , Anita K. McElroy
    • , Vincent Munster
    • , Nadia Oreshkova
    • , Angela L. Rasmussen
    • , Joana Rocha-Pereira
    • , Barry Rockx
    • , Estefanía Rodríguez
    • , Thomas F. Rogers
    • , Francisco J. Salguero
    • , Michael Schotsaert
    • , Koert J. Stittelaar
    • , Hendrik Jan Thibaut
    • , Chien-Te Tseng
    • , Júlia Vergara-Alert
    • , Martin Beer
    • , Trevor Brasel
    • , Jasper F. W. Chan
    • , Adolfo García-Sastre
    • , Johan Neyts
    • , Stanley Perlman
    • , Douglas S. Reed
    • , Juergen A. Richt
    • , Chad J. Roy
    • , Joaquim Segalés
    • , Seshadri S. Vasan
    • , Ana María Henao-Restrepo
    •  & Dan H. Barouch

    Collection:

  • Review Article |

    The development of vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 is reviewed, including an overview of the development process, the different types of vaccine candidate, and data from animal studies as well as phase I and II clinical trials in humans.

    • Florian Krammer

    Collection:

  • Articles

  • Article |

    The architecture of planetary systems is shown to be strongly affected by stellar clustering in position-velocity phase space; hot Jupiters occur preferentially at high density, suggesting that their extreme orbits originate from environmental perturbations.

    • Andrew J. Winter
    • , J. M. Diederik Kruijssen
    • , Steven N. Longmore
    •  & Mélanie Chevance
  • Article |

    Scalable optics co-fabricated with a cryogenic surface-electrode ion trap are used to drive high-fidelity multi-ion quantum logic gates, demonstrating a route to simultaneously scale and reduce errors in quantum processors.

    • Karan K. Mehta
    • , Chi Zhang
    • , Maciej Malinowski
    • , Thanh-Long Nguyen
    • , Martin Stadler
    •  & Jonathan P. Home
  • Article |

    A surface-electrode ion-trap chip is demonstrated, which delivers all the wavelengths of light required for the preparation and operation of ion qubits.

    • R. J. Niffenegger
    • , J. Stuart
    • , C. Sorace-Agaskar
    • , D. Kharas
    • , S. Bramhavar
    • , C. D. Bruzewicz
    • , W. Loh
    • , R. T. Maxson
    • , R. McConnell
    • , D. Reens
    • , G. N. West
    • , J. M. Sage
    •  & J. Chiaverini
  • Article |

    A jigsaw-style configuration of interlocking structures identified in the elytra of the remarkably tough diabolical ironclad beetle, Phloeodes diabolicus, is used to inspire crush-resistant multilayer composites for engineering joints.

    • Jesus Rivera
    • , Maryam Sadat Hosseini
    • , David Restrepo
    • , Satoshi Murata
    • , Drago Vasile
    • , Dilworth Y. Parkinson
    • , Harold S. Barnard
    • , Atsushi Arakaki
    • , Pablo Zavattieri
    •  & David Kisailus
  • Article |

    Investigation of a chromium-based metal–organic framework shows that the location of added TiO2 inside specific mesopores strongly affects the ability of the material to catalyse photoreduction of CO2.

    • Zhuo Jiang
    • , Xiaohui Xu
    • , Yanhang Ma
    • , Hae Sung Cho
    • , Deng Ding
    • , Chao Wang
    • , Jie Wu
    • , Peter Oleynikov
    • , Mei Jia
    • , Jun Cheng
    • , Yi Zhou
    • , Osamu Terasaki
    • , Tianyou Peng
    • , Ling Zan
    •  & Hexiang Deng
  • Article |

    Analysis of global three-dimensional shear attenuation and velocity models implies that partial melting in the seismic low-velocity zone enables motion of oceanic plates by reducing the viscosity of the asthenosphere.

    • Eric Debayle
    • , Thomas Bodin
    • , Stéphanie Durand
    •  & Yanick Ricard
  • Article |

    A model in mouse using a species-adapted virus recapitulates features of SARS-CoV-2 infection and age-related disease pathogenesis in humans, and provides a model system for rapid evaluation of medical countermeasures against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).

    • Kenneth H. Dinnon III
    • , Sarah R. Leist
    • , Alexandra Schäfer
    • , Caitlin E. Edwards
    • , David R. Martinez
    • , Stephanie A. Montgomery
    • , Ande West
    • , Boyd L. Yount Jr
    • , Yixuan J. Hou
    • , Lily E. Adams
    • , Kendra L. Gully
    • , Ariane J. Brown
    • , Emily Huang
    • , Matthew D. Bryant
    • , Ingrid C. Choong
    • , Jeffrey S. Glenn
    • , Lisa E. Gralinski
    • , Timothy P. Sheahan
    •  & Ralph S. Baric
  • Article |

    mRNA-1273, an mRNA vaccine that encodes a stabilized prefusion-state severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spike protein, elicits robust immune responses and protects mice against replication of SARS-CoV-2 in the upper and lower airways.

    • Kizzmekia S. Corbett
    • , Darin K. Edwards
    • , Sarah R. Leist
    • , Olubukola M. Abiona
    • , Seyhan Boyoglu-Barnum
    • , Rebecca A. Gillespie
    • , Sunny Himansu
    • , Alexandra Schäfer
    • , Cynthia T. Ziwawo
    • , Anthony T. DiPiazza
    • , Kenneth H. Dinnon
    • , Sayda M. Elbashir
    • , Christine A. Shaw
    • , Angela Woods
    • , Ethan J. Fritch
    • , David R. Martinez
    • , Kevin W. Bock
    • , Mahnaz Minai
    • , Bianca M. Nagata
    • , Geoffrey B. Hutchinson
    • , Kai Wu
    • , Carole Henry
    • , Kapil Bahl
    • , Dario Garcia-Dominguez
    • , LingZhi Ma
    • , Isabella Renzi
    • , Wing-Pui Kong
    • , Stephen D. Schmidt
    • , Lingshu Wang
    • , Yi Zhang
    • , Emily Phung
    • , Lauren A. Chang
    • , Rebecca J. Loomis
    • , Nedim Emil Altaras
    • , Elisabeth Narayanan
    • , Mihir Metkar
    • , Vlad Presnyak
    • , Cuiping Liu
    • , Mark K. Louder
    • , Wei Shi
    • , Kwanyee Leung
    • , Eun Sung Yang
    • , Ande West
    • , Kendra L. Gully
    • , Laura J. Stevens
    • , Nianshuang Wang
    • , Daniel Wrapp
    • , Nicole A. Doria-Rose
    • , Guillaume Stewart-Jones
    • , Hamilton Bennett
    • , Gabriela S. Alvarado
    • , Martha C. Nason
    • , Tracy J. Ruckwardt
    • , Jason S. McLellan
    • , Mark R. Denison
    • , James D. Chappell
    • , Ian N. Moore
    • , Kaitlyn M. Morabito
    • , John R. Mascola
    • , Ralph S. Baric
    • , Andrea Carfi
    •  & Barney S. Graham
  • Article |

    A recombinant vaccine that targets the receptor-binding domain of the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 induces a potent antibody response in immunized mice, rabbits and non-human primates, and protects primates from infection with the virus.

    • Jingyun Yang
    • , Wei Wang
    • , Zimin Chen
    • , Shuaiyao Lu
    • , Fanli Yang
    • , Zhenfei Bi
    • , Linlin Bao
    • , Fei Mo
    • , Xue Li
    • , Yong Huang
    • , Weiqi Hong
    • , Yun Yang
    • , Yuan Zhao
    • , Fei Ye
    • , Sheng Lin
    • , Wei Deng
    • , Hua Chen
    • , Hong Lei
    • , Ziqi Zhang
    • , Min Luo
    • , Hong Gao
    • , Yue Zheng
    • , Yanqiu Gong
    • , Xiaohua Jiang
    • , Yanfeng Xu
    • , Qi Lv
    • , Dan Li
    • , Manni Wang
    • , Fengdi Li
    • , Shunyi Wang
    • , Guanpeng Wang
    • , Pin Yu
    • , Yajin Qu
    • , Li Yang
    • , Hongxin Deng
    • , Aiping Tong
    • , Jiong Li
    • , Zhenling Wang
    • , Jinliang Yang
    • , Guobo Shen
    • , Zhiwei Zhao
    • , Yuhua Li
    • , Jingwen Luo
    • , Hongqi Liu
    • , Wenhai Yu
    • , Mengli Yang
    • , Jingwen Xu
    • , Junbin Wang
    • , Haiyan Li
    • , Haixuan Wang
    • , Dexuan Kuang
    • , Panpan Lin
    • , Zhengtao Hu
    • , Wei Guo
    • , Wei Cheng
    • , Yanlin He
    • , Xiangrong Song
    • , Chong Chen
    • , Zhihong Xue
    • , Shaohua Yao
    • , Lu Chen
    • , Xuelei Ma
    • , Siyuan Chen
    • , Maling Gou
    • , Weijin Huang
    • , Youchun Wang
    • , Changfa Fan
    • , Zhixin Tian
    • , Ming Shi
    • , Fu-Sheng Wang
    • , Lunzhi Dai
    • , Min Wu
    • , Gen Li
    • , Guangyu Wang
    • , Yong Peng
    • , Zhiyong Qian
    • , Canhua Huang
    • , Johnson Yiu-Nam Lau
    • , Zhenglin Yang
    • , Yuquan Wei
    • , Xiaobo Cen
    • , Xiaozhong Peng
    • , Chuan Qin
    • , Kang Zhang
    • , Guangwen Lu
    •  & Xiawei Wei
  • Article |

    The ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine against SARS-CoV-2 induces an immune response in rhesus macaques and leads to reduced SARS-CoV-2 viral loads in respiratory tissues and an absence of pneumonia, but not to a reduction in nasal virus shedding, compared with unvaccinated animals.

    • Neeltje van Doremalen
    • , Teresa Lambe
    • , Alexandra Spencer
    • , Sandra Belij-Rammerstorfer
    • , Jyothi N. Purushotham
    • , Julia R. Port
    • , Victoria A. Avanzato
    • , Trenton Bushmaker
    • , Amy Flaxman
    • , Marta Ulaszewska
    • , Friederike Feldmann
    • , Elizabeth R. Allen
    • , Hannah Sharpe
    • , Jonathan Schulz
    • , Myndi Holbrook
    • , Atsushi Okumura
    • , Kimberly Meade-White
    • , Lizzette Pérez-Pérez
    • , Nick J. Edwards
    • , Daniel Wright
    • , Cameron Bissett
    • , Ciaran Gilbride
    • , Brandi N. Williamson
    • , Rebecca Rosenke
    • , Dan Long
    • , Alka Ishwarbhai
    • , Reshma Kailath
    • , Louisa Rose
    • , Susan Morris
    • , Claire Powers
    • , Jamie Lovaglio
    • , Patrick W. Hanley
    • , Dana Scott
    • , Greg Saturday
    • , Emmie de Wit
    • , Sarah C. Gilbert
    •  & Vincent J. Munster
  • Article |

    The protective efficacy of a single dose of adenovirus serotype 26 (Ad26) vector-based vaccine expressing the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein in non-human primates is demonstrated.

    • Noe B. Mercado
    • , Roland Zahn
    • , Frank Wegmann
    • , Carolin Loos
    • , Abishek Chandrashekar
    • , Jingyou Yu
    • , Jinyan Liu
    • , Lauren Peter
    • , Katherine McMahan
    • , Lisa H. Tostanoski
    • , Xuan He
    • , David R. Martinez
    • , Lucy Rutten
    • , Rinke Bos
    • , Danielle van Manen
    • , Jort Vellinga
    • , Jerome Custers
    • , Johannes P. Langedijk
    • , Ted Kwaks
    • , Mark J. G. Bakkers
    • , David Zuijdgeest
    • , Sietske K. Rosendahl Huber
    • , Caroline Atyeo
    • , Stephanie Fischinger
    • , John S. Burke
    • , Jared Feldman
    • , Blake M. Hauser
    • , Timothy M. Caradonna
    • , Esther A. Bondzie
    • , Gabriel Dagotto
    • , Makda S. Gebre
    • , Emily Hoffman
    • , Catherine Jacob-Dolan
    • , Marinela Kirilova
    • , Zhenfeng Li
    • , Zijin Lin
    • , Shant H. Mahrokhian
    • , Lori F. Maxfield
    • , Felix Nampanya
    • , Ramya Nityanandam
    • , Joseph P. Nkolola
    • , Shivani Patel
    • , John D. Ventura
    • , Kaylee Verrington
    • , Huahua Wan
    • , Laurent Pessaint
    • , Alex Van Ry
    • , Kelvin Blade
    • , Amanda Strasbaugh
    • , Mehtap Cabus
    • , Renita Brown
    • , Anthony Cook
    • , Serge Zouantchangadou
    • , Elyse Teow
    • , Hanne Andersen
    • , Mark G. Lewis
    • , Yongfei Cai
    • , Bing Chen
    • , Aaron G. Schmidt
    • , R. Keith Reeves
    • , Ralph S. Baric
    • , Douglas A. Lauffenburger
    • , Galit Alter
    • , Paul Stoffels
    • , Mathai Mammen
    • , Johan Van Hoof
    • , Hanneke Schuitemaker
    •  & Dan H. Barouch
  • Article |

    In a dose-escalation study of the COVID-19 RNA vaccine BNT162b1 in 45 healthy adults, RBD-binding IgG concentrations and SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing titres in sera increased with dose level and after a second vaccine dose.

    • Mark J. Mulligan
    • , Kirsten E. Lyke
    • , Nicholas Kitchin
    • , Judith Absalon
    • , Alejandra Gurtman
    • , Stephen Lockhart
    • , Kathleen Neuzil
    • , Vanessa Raabe
    • , Ruth Bailey
    • , Kena A. Swanson
    • , Ping Li
    • , Kenneth Koury
    • , Warren Kalina
    • , David Cooper
    • , Camila Fontes-Garfias
    • , Pei-Yong Shi
    • , Özlem Türeci
    • , Kristin R. Tompkins
    • , Edward E. Walsh
    • , Robert Frenck
    • , Ann R. Falsey
    • , Philip R. Dormitzer
    • , William C. Gruber
    • , Uğur Şahin
    •  & Kathrin U. Jansen
  • Article |

    In a phase I/II dose-escalation clinical trial, the mRNA COVID-19 vaccine BNT162b1 elicits specific T cell and antibody responses that suggest it has protective potential.

    • Ugur Sahin
    • , Alexander Muik
    • , Evelyna Derhovanessian
    • , Isabel Vogler
    • , Lena M. Kranz
    • , Mathias Vormehr
    • , Alina Baum
    • , Kristen Pascal
    • , Jasmin Quandt
    • , Daniel Maurus
    • , Sebastian Brachtendorf
    • , Verena Lörks
    • , Julian Sikorski
    • , Rolf Hilker
    • , Dirk Becker
    • , Ann-Kathrin Eller
    • , Jan Grützner
    • , Carsten Boesler
    • , Corinna Rosenbaum
    • , Marie-Cristine Kühnle
    • , Ulrich Luxemburger
    • , Alexandra Kemmer-Brück
    • , David Langer
    • , Martin Bexon
    • , Stefanie Bolte
    • , Katalin Karikó
    • , Tania Palanche
    • , Boris Fischer
    • , Armin Schultz
    • , Pei-Yong Shi
    • , Camila Fontes-Garfias
    • , John L. Perez
    • , Kena A. Swanson
    • , Jakob Loschko
    • , Ingrid L. Scully
    • , Mark Cutler
    • , Warren Kalina
    • , Christos A. Kyratsous
    • , David Cooper
    • , Philip R. Dormitzer
    • , Kathrin U. Jansen
    •  & Özlem Türeci
  • Article |

    A combination of clonal expansion and DNA amplification is used to sequence genetic material from individual melanocytes, shedding light on the mutational landscape of these cells and the development of melanomas.

    • Jessica Tang
    • , Eleanor Fewings
    • , Darwin Chang
    • , Hanlin Zeng
    • , Shanshan Liu
    • , Aparna Jorapur
    • , Rachel L. Belote
    • , Andrew S. McNeal
    • , Tuyet M. Tan
    • , Iwei Yeh
    • , Sarah T. Arron
    • , Robert L. Judson-Torres
    • , Boris C. Bastian
    •  & A. Hunter Shain
  • Article |

    Metabolically-mature human islet-like organoids generated from induced pluripotent stem cells are able to recapitulate insulin-responsive pancreatic islet function and avoid immunologic cell death in diabetic mouse transplantation models.

    • Eiji Yoshihara
    • , Carolyn O’Connor
    • , Emanuel Gasser
    • , Zong Wei
    • , Tae Gyu Oh
    • , Tiffany W. Tseng
    • , Dan Wang
    • , Fritz Cayabyab
    • , Yang Dai
    • , Ruth T. Yu
    • , Christopher Liddle
    • , Annette R. Atkins
    • , Michael Downes
    •  & Ronald M. Evans
  • Article |

    Single-cell RNA-sequencing analysis of embryogenesis and X chromosome inactivation in the opossum (Monodelphis domestica) resolves the developmental trajectory of a marsupial, and sheds light on the evolution of embryogenesis in mammals.

    • Shantha K. Mahadevaiah
    • , Mahesh N. Sangrithi
    • , Takayuki Hirota
    •  & James M. A. Turner
  • Article |

    Reconstitution of the activation of the MLH1–MLH3 endonuclease shows how crossovers are formed during meiosis.

    • Elda Cannavo
    • , Aurore Sanchez
    • , Roopesh Anand
    • , Lepakshi Ranjha
    • , Jannik Hugener
    • , Céline Adam
    • , Ananya Acharya
    • , Nicolas Weyland
    • , Xavier Aran-Guiu
    • , Jean-Baptiste Charbonnier
    • , Eva R. Hoffmann
    • , Valérie Borde
    • , Joao Matos
    •  & Petr Cejka
  • Article |

    A new mechanism explaining how double Holliday junctions are specifically resolved into crossovers during meiosis is shown that resembles the initiation of DNA mismatch repair.

    • Dhananjaya S. Kulkarni
    • , Shannon N. Owens
    • , Masayoshi Honda
    • , Masaru Ito
    • , Ye Yang
    • , Mary W. Corrigan
    • , Lan Chen
    • , Aric L. Quan
    •  & Neil Hunter
  • Matters Arising

  • Matters Arising |

    • Philip L. Munday
    • , Danielle L. Dixson
    • , Megan J. Welch
    • , Douglas P. Chivers
    • , Paolo Domenici
    • , Martin Grosell
    • , Rachael M. Heuer
    • , Geoffrey P. Jones
    • , Mark I. McCormick
    • , Mark Meekan
    • , Göran E. Nilsson
    • , Timothy Ravasi
    •  & Sue-Ann Watson

Amendments & Corrections

Nature Outlook

  • Nature Outlook |

    Antimicrobial resistance

    As bacteria that cause infection adapt to withstand antibiotics, the potential for antimicrobial resistance to cause a global health crisis looms large. Scientists and policymakers are working together to find ways to fight back against this threat.

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