Volume 586 Issue 7829, 15 October 2020

Turning up the heat

Superconductors, materials that conduct electricity with zero resistance below a critical temperature, have been known since the early twentieth century. But for decades it was believed the phenomenon was restricted to temperatures close to absolute zero. With the discovery of high-temperature superconductors in the 1980s, that idea was overthrown — even though the high temperatures in question were of the order of −140 °C. Since then, the quest for materials that superconduct at ever-higher temperatures has flourished, and in this week’s issue, Ranga Dias and his colleagues realize a long-sought milestone: a material that superconducts at room temperature. The researchers generated a photochemically transformed carbonaceous sulfur hydride system that shows superconductivity at around 15 °C. At this point, the phenomenon still requires high pressures of at least 270 gigapascals, but the team believes that chemical tuning of the system will allow superconductivity to be achieved at lower pressures.

Cover image: Peter Crowther.

This Week

News in Focus

Opinion

    Obituary

  • Obituary |

    Theoretical physicist who pioneered the computer modelling of matter.

    • David Ceperley
  • Comment

  • Comment |

    Counselling, coaches and collegiality — how institutions can share resources to promote best practice in science.

    • Niels Mejlgaard
    • , Lex M. Bouter
    • , George Gaskell
    • , Panagiotis Kavouras
    • , Nick Allum
    • , Anna-Kathrine Bendtsen
    • , Costas A. Charitidis
    • , Nik Claesen
    • , Kris Dierickx
    • , Anna Domaradzka
    • , Andrea Reyes Elizondo
    • , Nicole Foeger
    • , Maura Hiney
    • , Wolfgang Kaltenbrunner
    • , Krishma Labib
    • , Ana Marušić
    • , Mads P. Sørensen
    • , Tine Ravn
    • , Rea Ščepanović
    • , Joeri K. Tijdink
    •  & Giuseppe A. Veltri

Work

Research

    News & Views

  • News & Views |

    Measurements of faint radio emission from distant galaxies have revealed the nature of the gases that drove the epoch of peak galaxy formation — and also suggest why star-formation rates have since declined.

    • Chris L. Carilli
  • News & Views |

    The cGAS–STING signalling pathway, which has a key role in antiviral immune responses in mammals, is found to have originated as an immune-defence system that protects bacteria against viral infection.

    • Justin Jenson
    •  & Zhijian J. Chen
  • News & Views |

    Hardware modelled on the brain could revolutionize computing, but implementing algorithms on such systems is a challenge. A proposed conceptual framework could simplify implementation, accelerating research in this field.

    • Oliver Rhodes
  • News & Views |

    Microglia are the brain’s immune cells. A previously unknown role for microglia has now been uncovered: providing negative feedback to active neurons, to help the brain process information.

    • Thomas Pfeiffer
    •  & David Attwell
  • Articles

  • Article |

    Room-temperature superconductivity is observed in a photochemically synthesized ternary carbonaceous sulfur hydride system at 15 °C and 267 GPa.

    • Elliot Snider
    • , Nathan Dasenbrock-Gammon
    • , Raymond McBride
    • , Mathew Debessai
    • , Hiranya Vindana
    • , Kevin Vencatasamy
    • , Keith V. Lawler
    • , Ashkan Salamat
    •  & Ranga P. Dias
  • Article |

    The concept of neuromorphic completeness and a system hierarchy for neuromorphic computing are presented, which could improve programming-language portability, hardware completeness and compilation feasibility of brain-inspired computing systems

    • Youhui Zhang
    • , Peng Qu
    • , Yu Ji
    • , Weihao Zhang
    • , Guangrong Gao
    • , Guanrui Wang
    • , Sen Song
    • , Guoqi Li
    • , Wenguang Chen
    • , Weimin Zheng
    • , Feng Chen
    • , Jing Pei
    • , Rong Zhao
    • , Mingguo Zhao
    •  & Luping Shi
  • Article |

    Cadmium-free blue quantum dot light-emitting diodes are constructed with a quantum yield of unity, an efficiency at the theoretical limit, high brightness and long operational lifetime.

    • Taehyung Kim
    • , Kwang-Hee Kim
    • , Sungwoo Kim
    • , Seon-Myeong Choi
    • , Hyosook Jang
    • , Hong-Kyu Seo
    • , Heejae Lee
    • , Dae-Young Chung
    •  & Eunjoo Jang
  • Article |

    High oxidation resistance, without degradation of thermal or electrical conductivity, is achieved in copper using surface modification by a solvothermal or electrochemical treatment with sodium formate and formation of a thin surface coordination layer.

    • Jian Peng
    • , Bili Chen
    • , Zhichang Wang
    • , Jing Guo
    • , Binghui Wu
    • , Shuqiang Hao
    • , Qinghua Zhang
    • , Lin Gu
    • , Qin Zhou
    • , Zhi Liu
    • , Shuqin Hong
    • , Sifan You
    • , Ang Fu
    • , Zaifa Shi
    • , Hao Xie
    • , Duanyun Cao
    • , Chang-Jian Lin
    • , Gang Fu
    • , Lan-Sun Zheng
    • , Ying Jiang
    •  & Nanfeng Zheng
  • Article |

    Modelling reveals how thick diamondiferous continental mantle ‘keels’ were formed only at increased mantle temperatures when the melt-depleted, hot, ductile mantle located under subducting oceanic plates flowed backwards, underplating the continents.

    • A. L. Perchuk
    • , T. V. Gerya
    • , V. S. Zakharov
    •  & W. L. Griffin
  • Article |

    Protein synthesis is required in distinct populations of inhibitory neurons in the mouse amygdala to store memories of danger and safety.

    • Prerana Shrestha
    • , Zhe Shan
    • , Maggie Mamcarz
    • , Karen San Agustin Ruiz
    • , Adam T. Zerihoun
    • , Chien-Yu Juan
    • , Pedro M. Herrero-Vidal
    • , Jerry Pelletier
    • , Nathaniel Heintz
    •  & Eric Klann
  • Article |

    Stimulation of de novo protein synthesis in both excitatory and inhibitory, somatostatin-expressing neurons in the mouse hippocampus enhances memory consolidation.

    • Vijendra Sharma
    • , Rapita Sood
    • , Abdessattar Khlaifia
    • , Mohammad Javad Eslamizade
    • , Tzu-Yu Hung
    • , Danning Lou
    • , Azam Asgarihafshejani
    • , Maya Lalzar
    • , Stephen J. Kiniry
    • , Matthew P. Stokes
    • , Noah Cohen
    • , Alissa J. Nelson
    • , Kathryn Abell
    • , Anthony P. Possemato
    • , Shunit Gal-Ben-Ari
    • , Vinh T. Truong
    • , Peng Wang
    • , Adonis Yiannakas
    • , Fatemeh Saffarzadeh
    • , A. Claudio Cuello
    • , Karim Nader
    • , Randal J. Kaufman
    • , Mauro Costa-Mattioli
    • , Pavel V. Baranov
    • , Albert Quintana
    • , Elisenda Sanz
    • , Arkady Khoutorsky
    • , Jean-Claude Lacaille
    • , Kobi Rosenblum
    •  & Nahum Sonenberg
  • Article |

    Microglia, the brain’s immune cells, suppress neuronal activity in response to synaptic ATP release and alter behavioural responses in mice.

    • Ana Badimon
    • , Hayley J. Strasburger
    • , Pinar Ayata
    • , Xinhong Chen
    • , Aditya Nair
    • , Ako Ikegami
    • , Philip Hwang
    • , Andrew T. Chan
    • , Steven M. Graves
    • , Joseph O. Uweru
    • , Carola Ledderose
    • , Munir Gunes Kutlu
    • , Michael A. Wheeler
    • , Anat Kahan
    • , Masago Ishikawa
    • , Ying-Chih Wang
    • , Yong-Hwee E. Loh
    • , Jean X. Jiang
    • , D. James Surmeier
    • , Simon C. Robson
    • , Wolfgang G. Junger
    • , Robert Sebra
    • , Erin S. Calipari
    • , Paul J. Kenny
    • , Ukpong B. Eyo
    • , Marco Colonna
    • , Francisco J. Quintana
    • , Hiroaki Wake
    • , Viviana Gradinaru
    •  & Anne Schaefer
  • Article |

    Ruhugu virus and rustrela virus are the first close relatives of rubella virus, providing insights into the zoonotic origin of rubella virus and the epidemiology and evolution of all three viruses.

    • Andrew J. Bennett
    • , Adrian C. Paskey
    • , Arnt Ebinger
    • , Florian Pfaff
    • , Grit Priemer
    • , Dirk Höper
    • , Angele Breithaupt
    • , Elisa Heuser
    • , Rainer G. Ulrich
    • , Jens H. Kuhn
    • , Kimberly A. Bishop-Lilly
    • , Martin Beer
    •  & Tony L. Goldberg
  • Article |

    Structures of prokaryotic homologues of STING permit the reconstruction of the evolutionary trajectory of its incorporation into metazoan innate immunity, and reveal a role for the conserved cGAS–STING pathway in prokaryotic defence against bacteriophages.

    • Benjamin R. Morehouse
    • , Apurva A. Govande
    • , Adi Millman
    • , Alexander F. A. Keszei
    • , Brianna Lowey
    • , Gal Ofir
    • , Sichen Shao
    • , Rotem Sorek
    •  & Philip J. Kranzusch
  • Article |

    The dynamic and reversible S-palmitoylation of the transcription factor STAT3 enhances its activation and promotes the differentiation of TH17 cells.

    • Mingming Zhang
    • , Lixing Zhou
    • , Yuejie Xu
    • , Min Yang
    • , Yilai Xu
    • , Garrison Paul Komaniecki
    • , Tatsiana Kosciuk
    • , Xiao Chen
    • , Xuan Lu
    • , Xiaoping Zou
    • , Maurine E. Linder
    •  & Hening Lin
  • Article |

    The chromatin protein MeCP2 is a component of dynamic, liquid-like heterochromatin condensates, and the ability of MeCP2 to form condensates is disrupted by mutations in the MECP2 gene that occur in the neurodevelopmental disorder Rett syndrome.

    • Charles H. Li
    • , Eliot L. Coffey
    • , Alessandra Dall’Agnese
    • , Nancy M. Hannett
    • , Xin Tang
    • , Jonathan E. Henninger
    • , Jesse M. Platt
    • , Ozgur Oksuz
    • , Alicia V. Zamudio
    • , Lena K. Afeyan
    • , Jurian Schuijers
    • , X. Shawn Liu
    • , Styliani Markoulaki
    • , Tenzin Lungjangwa
    • , Gary LeRoy
    • , Devon S. Svoboda
    • , Emile Wogram
    • , Tong Ihn Lee
    • , Rudolf Jaenisch
    •  & Richard A. Young
  • Article |

    Exposing Caenorhabditis elegans to non-coding small RNAs from pathogenic Pseudomonas aeruginosa induces avoidance behaviours in treated worms and their progeny, which reveals how C. elegans discriminates between bacterial species in its microbial environment.

    • Rachel Kaletsky
    • , Rebecca S. Moore
    • , Geoffrey D. Vrla
    • , Lance R. Parsons
    • , Zemer Gitai
    •  & Coleen T. Murphy
  • Article |

    Structural studies of the dimerization quality control E3 ubiquitin ligase SCF–FBXL17 indicate that its selectivity for aberrant complex formation is based on recognizing both shape and complementarity of interacting domains.

    • Elijah L. Mena
    • , Predrag Jevtić
    • , Basil J. Greber
    • , Christine L. Gee
    • , Brandon G. Lew
    • , David Akopian
    • , Eva Nogales
    • , John Kuriyan
    •  & Michael Rape
  • Matters Arising

  • Matters Arising |

    • Benjamin Haibe-Kains
    • , George Alexandru Adam
    • , Ahmed Hosny
    • , Farnoosh Khodakarami
    • , Thakkar Shraddha
    • , Rebecca Kusko
    • , Susanna-Assunta Sansone
    • , Weida Tong
    • , Russ D. Wolfinger
    • , Christopher E. Mason
    • , Wendell Jones
    • , Joaquin Dopazo
    • , Cesare Furlanello
    • , Levi Waldron
    • , Bo Wang
    • , Chris McIntosh
    • , Anna Goldenberg
    • , Anshul Kundaje
    • , Casey S. Greene
    • , Tamara Broderick
    • , Michael M. Hoffman
    • , Jeffrey T. Leek
    • , Keegan Korthauer
    • , Wolfgang Huber
    • , Alvis Brazma
    • , Joelle Pineau
    • , Robert Tibshirani
    • , Trevor Hastie
    • , John P. A. Ioannidis
    • , John Quackenbush
    •  & Hugo J. W. L. Aerts

Amendments & Corrections

  • Addendum |

    • Scott Mayer McKinney
    • , Marcin Sieniek
    • , Varun Godbole
    • , Jonathan Godwin
    • , Natasha Antropova
    • , Hutan Ashrafian
    • , Trevor Back
    • , Mary Chesus
    • , Greg S. Corrado
    • , Ara Darzi
    • , Mozziyar Etemadi
    • , Florencia Garcia-Vicente
    • , Fiona J. Gilbert
    • , Mark Halling-Brown
    • , Demis Hassabis
    • , Sunny Jansen
    • , Alan Karthikesalingam
    • , Christopher J. Kelly
    • , Dominic King
    • , Joseph R. Ledsam
    • , David Melnick
    • , Hormuz Mostofi
    • , Lily Peng
    • , Joshua Jay Reicher
    • , Bernardino Romera-Paredes
    • , Richard Sidebottom
    • , Mustafa Suleyman
    • , Daniel Tse
    • , Kenneth C. Young
    • , Jeffrey De Fauw
    •  & Shravya Shetty

Nature Outlook

  • Nature Outlook |

    Headache

    A headache is more than a passing annoyance. For people who experience migraines and cluster headaches, it can be debilitating.

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