Volume 586 Issue 7828, 8 October 2020

Gut profiles

The cover image shows organoids grown from a mouse adult intestinal stem cell stained for differentiated and proliferating cells. Such organoids are increasingly being used to study organ development and physiology, as well as finding applications in testing new drugs. In this week’s issue, Prisca Liberali and her colleagues present an organoid-based screening platform, which they used to identify compounds that promote intestinal regeneration. By generating phenotypic fingerprints for hundreds of thousands of organoids, the researchers were able to map genetic interactions involved in cell fate and regeneration. They found that differentiation of the cells lining the gut relies on retinoic acid signalling, and that inhibiting a cell receptor for retinoic acid can improve intestinal regeneration.

Cover image: Ilya Lukonin

This Week

News in Focus

Opinion

Work

Research

    News & Views

  • News & Views |

    Electronic devices called inductors are hard to miniaturize because their effectiveness is proportional to their size. An approach based on quantum mechanics could overcome this issue, offering many potential applications.

    • Seonghoon Woo
  • News & Views |

    Resident bacteria in the maternal gut are important for normal fetal brain development in mice. It emerges that this effect is driven by bacterially produced metabolite molecules that signal to the fetal brain.

    • Katherine R. Meckel
    •  & Drew D. Kiraly
  • News & Views |

    Narrow rings and gaps have been seen in a particularly young disk of dust and gas around a nascent star, using the world’s most powerful radio telescope. The finding provides a potential glimpse of the earliest stages of planet formation.

    • Patrick Sheehan
  • Reviews

  • Review Article |

    The current state of programmable photonic integrated circuits is discussed, including recent developments in their building blocks, circuit architectures, electronic control and programming strategies, as well as different application spaces.

    • Wim Bogaerts
    • , Daniel Pérez
    • , José Capmany
    • , David A. B. Miller
    • , Joyce Poon
    • , Dirk Englund
    • , Francesco Morichetti
    •  & Andrea Melloni
  • Review Article |

    The long-term success of area-based conservation—including both protected areas and other effective area-based conservation measures—after 2020 will depend on governments securing adequate funding and prioritizing biodiversity in land, water and sea management.

    • Sean L. Maxwell
    • , Victor Cazalis
    • , Nigel Dudley
    • , Michael Hoffmann
    • , Ana S. L. Rodrigues
    • , Sue Stolton
    • , Piero Visconti
    • , Stephen Woodley
    • , Naomi Kingston
    • , Edward Lewis
    • , Martine Maron
    • , Bernardo B. N. Strassburg
    • , Amelia Wenger
    • , Harry D. Jonas
    • , Oscar Venter
    •  & James E. M. Watson
  • Articles

  • Article |

    Dust-emission observations of the young (<500,000 years old) protostar IRS 63 show evidence of rings and gaps in its disk, a prerequisite of planet formation.

    • Dominique M. Segura-Cox
    • , Anika Schmiedeke
    • , Jaime E. Pineda
    • , Ian W. Stephens
    • , Manuel Fernández-López
    • , Leslie W. Looney
    • , Paola Caselli
    • , Zhi-Yun Li
    • , Lee G. Mundy
    • , Woojin Kwon
    •  & Robert J. Harris
  • Article |

    Microscale magnetic devices containing nanoscale spin helices produce an inductance comparable in magnitude to that of a commercial inductor, in a volume about a million times smaller.

    • Tomoyuki Yokouchi
    • , Fumitaka Kagawa
    • , Max Hirschberger
    • , Yoshichika Otani
    • , Naoto Nagaosa
    •  & Yoshinori Tokura
  • Article |

    An air gap embedded within the structure of a thermophotovoltaic device acts as a near-perfect reflector of low-energy photons, resulting in their recovery and recycling by the thermal source, enabling excellent power-conversion efficiency.

    • Dejiu Fan
    • , Tobias Burger
    • , Sean McSherry
    • , Byungjun Lee
    • , Andrej Lenert
    •  & Stephen R. Forrest
  • Article |

    Bottom-up and top-down approaches are used to quantify global nitrous oxide sources and sinks resulting from both natural and anthropogenic sources, revealing a 30% increase in global human-induced emissions between 1980 and 2016.

    • Hanqin Tian
    • , Rongting Xu
    • , Josep G. Canadell
    • , Rona L. Thompson
    • , Wilfried Winiwarter
    • , Parvadha Suntharalingam
    • , Eric A. Davidson
    • , Philippe Ciais
    • , Robert B. Jackson
    • , Greet Janssens-Maenhout
    • , Michael J. Prather
    • , Pierre Regnier
    • , Naiqing Pan
    • , Shufen Pan
    • , Glen P. Peters
    • , Hao Shi
    • , Francesco N. Tubiello
    • , Sönke Zaehle
    • , Feng Zhou
    • , Almut Arneth
    • , Gianna Battaglia
    • , Sarah Berthet
    • , Laurent Bopp
    • , Alexander F. Bouwman
    • , Erik T. Buitenhuis
    • , Jinfeng Chang
    • , Martyn P. Chipperfield
    • , Shree R. S. Dangal
    • , Edward Dlugokencky
    • , James W. Elkins
    • , Bradley D. Eyre
    • , Bojie Fu
    • , Bradley Hall
    • , Akihiko Ito
    • , Fortunat Joos
    • , Paul B. Krummel
    • , Angela Landolfi
    • , Goulven G. Laruelle
    • , Ronny Lauerwald
    • , Wei Li
    • , Sebastian Lienert
    • , Taylor Maavara
    • , Michael MacLeod
    • , Dylan B. Millet
    • , Stefan Olin
    • , Prabir K. Patra
    • , Ronald G. Prinn
    • , Peter A. Raymond
    • , Daniel J. Ruiz
    • , Guido R. van der Werf
    • , Nicolas Vuichard
    • , Junjie Wang
    • , Ray F. Weiss
    • , Kelley C. Wells
    • , Chris Wilson
    • , Jia Yang
    •  & Yuanzhi Yao
  • Article |

    Single-nucleus RNA-sequencing analyses of brain from humans, macaques, marmosets, mice and ferrets reveal diverse ways that interneuron populations have changed during evolution.

    • Fenna M. Krienen
    • , Melissa Goldman
    • , Qiangge Zhang
    • , Ricardo C. H. del Rosario
    • , Marta Florio
    • , Robert Machold
    • , Arpiar Saunders
    • , Kirsten Levandowski
    • , Heather Zaniewski
    • , Benjamin Schuman
    • , Carolyn Wu
    • , Alyssa Lutservitz
    • , Christopher D. Mullally
    • , Nora Reed
    • , Elizabeth Bien
    • , Laura Bortolin
    • , Marian Fernandez-Otero
    • , Jessica D. Lin
    • , Alec Wysoker
    • , James Nemesh
    • , David Kulp
    • , Monika Burns
    • , Victor Tkachev
    • , Richard Smith
    • , Christopher A. Walsh
    • , Jordane Dimidschstein
    • , Bernardo Rudy
    • , Leslie S. Kean
    • , Sabina Berretta
    • , Gord Fishell
    • , Guoping Feng
    •  & Steven A. McCarroll
  • Article |

    The supramammillary nucleus in the hypothalamus acts as a novelty hub that selectively directs different types of novelty signals to different subregions of the hippocampus and flexibly modulates the encoding of memory.

    • Shuo Chen
    • , Linmeng He
    • , Arthur J. Y. Huang
    • , Roman Boehringer
    • , Vincent Robert
    • , Marie E. Wintzer
    • , Denis Polygalov
    • , Adam Z. Weitemier
    • , Yanqiu Tao
    • , Mingxiao Gu
    • , Steven J. Middleton
    • , Kana Namiki
    • , Hiroshi Hama
    • , Ludivine Therreau
    • , Vivien Chevaleyre
    • , Hiroyuki Hioki
    • , Atsushi Miyawaki
    • , Rebecca A. Piskorowski
    •  & Thomas J. McHugh
  • Article |

    An organoid-based screening platform maps the genetic interactions underlying intestinal development and regeneration, showing that retinoic acid metabolism maintains the balance between regeneration and homeostasis, and that an antagonist of the retinoid X receptor promotes regeneration in vivo.

    • Ilya Lukonin
    • , Denise Serra
    • , Ludivine Challet Meylan
    • , Katrin Volkmann
    • , Janine Baaten
    • , Rui Zhao
    • , Shelly Meeusen
    • , Karyn Colman
    • , Francisca Maurer
    • , Michael B. Stadler
    • , Jeremy Jenkins
    •  & Prisca Liberali
  • Article |

    Small molecules that arise from the maternal gut microbiome in pregnant dams promote fetal thalamocortical axonogenesis in their offspring.

    • Helen E. Vuong
    • , Geoffrey N. Pronovost
    • , Drake W. Williams
    • , Elena J. L. Coley
    • , Emily L. Siegler
    • , Austin Qiu
    • , Maria Kazantsev
    • , Chantel J. Wilson
    • , Tomiko Rendon
    •  & Elaine Y. Hsiao
  • Article |

    Na+ controls the function of the mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation system and hypoxic redox signalling through an unexpected interaction with phospholipids.

    • Pablo Hernansanz-Agustín
    • , Carmen Choya-Foces
    • , Susana Carregal-Romero
    • , Elena Ramos
    • , Tamara Oliva
    • , Tamara Villa-Piña
    • , Laura Moreno
    • , Alicia Izquierdo-Álvarez
    • , J. Daniel Cabrera-García
    • , Ana Cortés
    • , Ana Victoria Lechuga-Vieco
    • , Pooja Jadiya
    • , Elisa Navarro
    • , Esther Parada
    • , Alejandra Palomino-Antolín
    • , Daniel Tello
    • , Rebeca Acín-Pérez
    • , Juan Carlos Rodríguez-Aguilera
    • , Plácido Navas
    • , Ángel Cogolludo
    • , Iván López-Montero
    • , Álvaro Martínez-del-Pozo
    • , Javier Egea
    • , Manuela G. López
    • , John W. Elrod
    • , Jesús Ruíz-Cabello
    • , Anna Bogdanova
    • , José Antonio Enríquez
    •  & Antonio Martínez-Ruiz
  • Article |

    In cells with microsatellite instability, expanded TA-dinucleotide repeats form cruciform structures that stall replication forks and cause chromosome shattering in the absence of the WRN helicase.

    • Niek van Wietmarschen
    • , Sriram Sridharan
    • , William J. Nathan
    • , Anthony Tubbs
    • , Edmond M. Chan
    • , Elsa Callen
    • , Wei Wu
    • , Frida Belinky
    • , Veenu Tripathi
    • , Nancy Wong
    • , Kyla Foster
    • , Javad Noorbakhsh
    • , Kiran Garimella
    • , Abimael Cruz-Migoni
    • , Joshua A. Sommers
    • , Yongqing Huang
    • , Ashir A. Borah
    • , Jonathan T. Smith
    • , Jeremie Kalfon
    • , Nikolas Kesten
    • , Kasper Fugger
    • , Robert L. Walker
    • , Egor Dolzhenko
    • , Michael A. Eberle
    • , Bruce E. Hayward
    • , Karen Usdin
    • , Catherine H. Freudenreich
    • , Robert M. Brosh Jr
    • , Stephen C. West
    • , Peter J. McHugh
    • , Paul S. Meltzer
    • , Adam J. Bass
    •  & André Nussenzweig
  • Article |

    Expression of the axon-guidance gene Slit2 in endothelium, induced by endothelial sensing of tumour-derived double-stranded RNA, promotes metastatic dissemination in mouse models of breast and lung cancer.

    • Bernardo Tavora
    • , Tobias Mederer
    • , Kai J. Wessel
    • , Simon Ruffing
    • , Mahan Sadjadi
    • , Marc Missmahl
    • , Benjamin N. Ostendorf
    • , Xuhang Liu
    • , Ji-Young Kim
    • , Olav Olsen
    • , Alana L. Welm
    • , Hani Goodarzi
    •  & Sohail F. Tavazoie
  • Article |

    Using an auxin-inducible approach, the authors show that downmodulation of CTCF activity promotes cohesin-driven RAG endonuclease scanning, and thus V(D)J recombination, across the Igh locus.

    • Zhaoqing Ba
    • , Jiangman Lou
    • , Adam Yongxin Ye
    • , Hai-Qiang Dai
    • , Edward W. Dring
    • , Sherry G. Lin
    • , Suvi Jain
    • , Nia Kyritsis
    • , Kyong-Rim Kieffer-Kwon
    • , Rafael Casellas
    •  & Frederick W. Alt
  • Article |

    Structural determination of the salicylic-acid-binding core of Arabidopsis NPR4 sheds light on the mechanisms through which this plant hormone interacts with its receptors, providing insights that are of potential use in engineering enhanced immunity.

    • Wei Wang
    • , John Withers
    • , Heng Li
    • , Paul J. Zwack
    • , Domnița-Valeria Rusnac
    • , Hui Shi
    • , Lijing Liu
    • , Shunping Yan
    • , Thomas R. Hinds
    • , Mikelos Guttman
    • , Xinnian Dong
    •  & Ning Zheng
  • Article |

    Structures of the acetohydroxyacid synthase complexes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Arabidopsis thaliana provide insights into the biosynthesis of and feedback inhibition by branched-chain amino acids.

    • Thierry Lonhienne
    • , Yu Shang Low
    • , Mario D. Garcia
    • , Tristan Croll
    • , Yan Gao
    • , Quan Wang
    • , Lou Brillault
    • , Craig M. Williams
    • , James A. Fraser
    • , Ross P. McGeary
    • , Nicholas P. West
    • , Michael J. Landsberg
    • , Zihe Rao
    • , Gerhard Schenk
    •  & Luke W. Guddat

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