Volume 579 Issue 7800, 26 March 2020

Glowing report

The cover shows a thermal image of the carbonaceous (C-type) asteroid 162173 Ryugu. C-type asteroids formed some 4.6 billion years ago and are made up of primitive materials that could shed light on the origin of the Solar System. But even though they are the most common type of asteroid, little is known about their physical properties. In this week’s issue, Tatsuaki Okada and his colleagues describe their analysis of the thermal data captured by the thermal imager TIR on the spacecraft Hayabusa2 when it encountered Ryugu. The results reveal that the asteroid is probably a collection of small, remarkably porous rocks held loosely together. The authors suggest Ryugu may represent a missing link between the fluffy dust that pervades much of space and dense celestial objects such as planets.

Cover image: JAXA et al.

This Week

News in Focus

Books & Arts

Opinion

Work

    News

  • Career News |

    Men outnumber and out-earn women, and white people take up more posts and are more likely to be in the highest pay grades than people from minority ethnic groups.

    • Chris Woolston
  • Column

  • Career Column |

    A few modest adjustments to the planning and delivery of talks can help scientists share ideas with their peers more effectively, say Scott St. George and Michael White.

    • Scott St. George
    •  & Michael White

Research

    News & Views

  • News & Views |

    A by-product of alcohol metabolism can damage the genome by crosslinking opposing DNA strands. The discovery of a safe mechanism that reverses such damage might open up avenues of research for drug discovery.

    • Irene Gallina
    •  & Julien P. Duxin
  • News & Views |

    Chromatin, the complex of DNA and protein in cell nuclei, can be modified by ubiquitin molecules. It emerges that this modification occurs in a molecular reaction chamber formed from an enzyme and a scaffold protein.

    • Nick Gilbert
    •  & Fred van Leeuwen
  • News & Views |

    In 1980, a method was found to determine the amount of carbon dioxide in ancient air trapped in polar ice — providing direct evidence that CO2 is coupled to climate, and affects global temperatures in the past, present and future.

    • Jean-Robert Petit
    •  & Dominique Raynaud
  • Reviews

  • Articles

  • Article |

    Thermal imaging data obtained from the spacecraft Hayabusa2 reveal that the carbonaceous asteroid 162173 Ryugu is an object of unusually high porosity.

    • Tatsuaki Okada
    • , Tetsuya Fukuhara
    • , Satoshi Tanaka
    • , Makoto Taguchi
    • , Takehiko Arai
    • , Hiroki Senshu
    • , Naoya Sakatani
    • , Yuri Shimaki
    • , Hirohide Demura
    • , Yoshiko Ogawa
    • , Kentaro Suko
    • , Tomohiko Sekiguchi
    • , Toru Kouyama
    • , Jun Takita
    • , Tsuneo Matsunaga
    • , Takeshi Imamura
    • , Takehiko Wada
    • , Sunao Hasegawa
    • , Jörn Helbert
    • , Thomas G. Müller
    • , Axel Hagermann
    • , Jens Biele
    • , Matthias Grott
    • , Maximilian Hamm
    • , Marco Delbo
    • , Naru Hirata
    • , Naoyuki Hirata
    • , Yukio Yamamoto
    • , Seiji Sugita
    • , Noriyuki Namiki
    • , Kohei Kitazato
    • , Masahiko Arakawa
    • , Shogo Tachibana
    • , Hitoshi Ikeda
    • , Masateru Ishiguro
    • , Koji Wada
    • , Chikatoshi Honda
    • , Rie Honda
    • , Yoshiaki Ishihara
    • , Koji Matsumoto
    • , Moe Matsuoka
    • , Tatsuhiro Michikami
    • , Akira Miura
    • , Tomokatsu Morota
    • , Hirotomo Noda
    • , Rina Noguchi
    • , Kazunori Ogawa
    • , Kei Shirai
    • , Eri Tatsumi
    • , Hikaru Yabuta
    • , Yasuhiro Yokota
    • , Manabu Yamada
    • , Masanao Abe
    • , Masahiko Hayakawa
    • , Takahiro Iwata
    • , Masanobu Ozaki
    • , Hajime Yano
    • , Satoshi Hosoda
    • , Osamu Mori
    • , Hirotaka Sawada
    • , Takanobu Shimada
    • , Hiroshi Takeuchi
    • , Ryudo Tsukizaki
    • , Atsushi Fujii
    • , Chikako Hirose
    • , Shota Kikuchi
    • , Yuya Mimasu
    • , Naoko Ogawa
    • , Go Ono
    • , Tadateru Takahashi
    • , Yuto Takei
    • , Tomohiro Yamaguchi
    • , Kent Yoshikawa
    • , Fuyuto Terui
    • , Takanao Saiki
    • , Satoru Nakazawa
    • , Makoto Yoshikawa
    • , Seiichiro Watanabe
    •  & Yuichi Tsuda
  • Article |

    Scanning tunnelling microscopy and spectroscopy measurements show chiral edge states inside the superconducting gap of the heavy-fermion superconductor UTe2, indicating the presence of chiral spin-triplet superconductivity.

    • Lin Jiao
    • , Sean Howard
    • , Sheng Ran
    • , Zhenyu Wang
    • , Jorge Olivares Rodriguez
    • , Manfred Sigrist
    • , Ziqiang Wang
    • , Nicholas P. Butch
    •  & Vidya Madhavan
  • Article |

    A quantum dot device designed to host four electrons is used to demonstrate Nagaoka ferromagnetism—a model of itinerant magnetism that has so far been limited to theoretical investigation.

    • J. P. Dehollain
    • , U. Mukhopadhyay
    • , V. P. Michal
    • , Y. Wang
    • , B. Wunsch
    • , C. Reichl
    • , W. Wegscheider
    • , M. S. Rudner
    • , E. Demler
    •  & L. M. K. Vandersypen
  • Article |

    An on-chip, all-electronic device based on the formation of a nanoplasma provides ultrafast electron transfer, enabling picosecond switching of electric signals and the generation of high-power terahertz pulses.

    • Mohammad Samizadeh Nikoo
    • , Armin Jafari
    • , Nirmana Perera
    • , Minghua Zhu
    • , Giovanni Santoruvo
    •  & Elison Matioli
  • Article |

    Cryo-STEM tomography of ferritin crystallization is used to reveal nonclassical evolution of crystalline order, indicating that it may be desolvation that drives the continuous evolution of order in crystallization.

    • Lothar Houben
    • , Haim Weissman
    • , Sharon G. Wolf
    •  & Boris Rybtchinski
  • Article |

    The pectoral fin of an Elpistostege watsoni specimen from the Upper Devonian period of Canada combines digits and fin rays, blurring the line between the appendages of fish and land vertebrates.

    • Richard Cloutier
    • , Alice M. Clement
    • , Michael S. Y. Lee
    • , Roxanne Noël
    • , Isabelle Béchard
    • , Vincent Roy
    •  & John A. Long
  • Article |

    Detection of dopamine dips by neurons that express dopamine D2 receptors in the striatum is used to refine generalized reward conditioning mediated by dopamine D1 receptors.

    • Yusuke Iino
    • , Takeshi Sawada
    • , Kenji Yamaguchi
    • , Mio Tajiri
    • , Shin Ishii
    • , Haruo Kasai
    •  & Sho Yagishita
  • Article |

    FERONIA prevents polyspermy in Arabidopsis by enabling pectin-stimulated nitric oxide accumulation at the filiform apparatus after the first pollen tube arrives, which disengages LURE1 chemoattraction to prevent late-arriving pollen tubes from entering the ovule.

    • Qiaohong Duan
    • , Ming-Che James Liu
    • , Daniel Kita
    • , Samuel S. Jordan
    • , Fang-Ling Jessica Yeh
    • , Robert Yvon
    • , Hunter Carpenter
    • , Anthony N. Federico
    • , Liliana E. Garcia-Valencia
    • , Stephen J. Eyles
    • , Co-Shine Wang
    • , Hen-Ming Wu
    •  & Alice Y. Cheung
  • Article |

    Microbial nucleic acids are detected in samples of tissues and blood from more than 10,000 patients with cancer, and machine learning is used to show that these can be used to discriminate between and among different types of cancer, suggesting a new microbiome-based diagnostic approach.

    • Gregory D. Poore
    • , Evguenia Kopylova
    • , Qiyun Zhu
    • , Carolina Carpenter
    • , Serena Fraraccio
    • , Stephen Wandro
    • , Tomasz Kosciolek
    • , Stefan Janssen
    • , Jessica Metcalf
    • , Se Jin Song
    • , Jad Kanbar
    • , Sandrine Miller-Montgomery
    • , Robert Heaton
    • , Rana Mckay
    • , Sandip Pravin Patel
    • , Austin D. Swafford
    •  & Rob Knight
  • Article |

    Feeding controls a neuroimmune circuit comprising VIP-producing neurons and type-3 innate lymphoid cells that helps to regulate the efficiency of nutrient uptake and IL-22-mediated immune protection in the intestine.

    • Jhimmy Talbot
    • , Paul Hahn
    • , Lina Kroehling
    • , Henry Nguyen
    • , Dayi Li
    •  & Dan R. Littman
  • Article |

    Visceral adipose tissue contains populations of regulatory T cells that exhibit sexual dimorphism, determined by the surrounding niche, and differ between male and female mice in terms of cell number, phenotype, transcriptional landscape and chromatin accessibility.

    • Ajithkumar Vasanthakumar
    • , David Chisanga
    • , Jonas Blume
    • , Renee Gloury
    • , Kara Britt
    • , Darren C. Henstridge
    • , Yifan Zhan
    • , Santiago Valle Torres
    • , Sebastian Liene
    • , Nicholas Collins
    • , Enyuan Cao
    • , Tom Sidwell
    • , Chaoran Li
    • , Raul German Spallanzani
    • , Yang Liao
    • , Paul A. Beavis
    • , Thomas Gebhardt
    • , Natalie Trevaskis
    • , Stephen L. Nutt
    • , Jeffrey D. Zajac
    • , Rachel A. Davey
    • , Mark A. Febbraio
    • , Diane Mathis
    • , Wei Shi
    •  & Axel Kallies
  • Article |

    A genetic mouse model is used to reveal a two-pronged mechanism of fructose-induced de novo lipogenesis in the liver, in which fructose catabolism in hepatocytes provides a signal to promote lipogenesis, whereas fructose metabolism by the gut microbiota provides acetate as a substrate to feed lipogenesis.

    • Steven Zhao
    • , Cholsoon Jang
    • , Joyce Liu
    • , Kahealani Uehara
    • , Michael Gilbert
    • , Luke Izzo
    • , Xianfeng Zeng
    • , Sophie Trefely
    • , Sully Fernandez
    • , Alessandro Carrer
    • , Katelyn D. Miller
    • , Zachary T. Schug
    • , Nathaniel W. Snyder
    • , Terence P. Gade
    • , Paul M. Titchenell
    • , Joshua D. Rabinowitz
    •  & Kathryn E. Wellen
  • Article |

    The yeast E3 ligase Bre1 forms a core–shell condensate with the scaffold protein Lge1, implicating liquid–liquid phase separation as a mechanism in the ubiquitination of histone H2B along gene bodies.

    • Laura D. Gallego
    • , Maren Schneider
    • , Chitvan Mittal
    • , Anete Romanauska
    • , Ricardo M. Gudino Carrillo
    • , Tobias Schubert
    • , B. Franklin Pugh
    •  & Alwin Köhler
  • Article |

    Assembly of a catalytic centre formed by HPF1 bound to PARP1 or PARP2 is essential for protein ADP-ribosylation after DNA damage in human cells.

    • Marcin J. Suskiewicz
    • , Florian Zobel
    • , Tom E. H. Ogden
    • , Pietro Fontana
    • , Antonio Ariza
    • , Ji-Chun Yang
    • , Kang Zhu
    • , Lily Bracken
    • , William J. Hawthorne
    • , Dragana Ahel
    • , David Neuhaus
    •  & Ivan Ahel
  • Article |

    DNA interstrand crosslinks induced by acetaldehyde are repaired by both the Fanconi anaemia pathway and by a second, excision-independent repair mechanism.

    • Michael R. Hodskinson
    • , Alice Bolner
    • , Koichi Sato
    • , Ashley N. Kamimae-Lanning
    • , Koos Rooijers
    • , Merlijn Witte
    • , Mohan Mahesh
    • , Jan Silhan
    • , Maya Petek
    • , David M. Williams
    • , Jop Kind
    • , Jason W. Chin
    • , Ketan J. Patel
    •  & Puck Knipscheer
  • Article |

    A computational screen of an ultra-large virtual library against the structure of the melatonin receptor found nanomolar ligands, and ultimately two selective MT1 inverse agonists that induced phase advancement of the mouse circadian clock when given at subjective dusk.

    • Reed M. Stein
    • , Hye Jin Kang
    • , John D. McCorvy
    • , Grant C. Glatfelter
    • , Anthony J. Jones
    • , Tao Che
    • , Samuel Slocum
    • , Xi-Ping Huang
    • , Olena Savych
    • , Yurii S. Moroz
    • , Benjamin Stauch
    • , Linda C. Johansson
    • , Vadim Cherezov
    • , Terry Kenakin
    • , John J. Irwin
    • , Brian K. Shoichet
    • , Bryan L. Roth
    •  & Margarita L. Dubocovich
  • Article |

    The authors provide high-resolution structures of two arenavirus polymerases, revealing that the active site of arenavirus polymerase is inherently switched on, without the requirement for allosteric activation by 5′-viral RNA, and that dimerization facilitates polymerase activity.

    • Ruchao Peng
    • , Xin Xu
    • , Jiamei Jing
    • , Min Wang
    • , Qi Peng
    • , Sheng Liu
    • , Ying Wu
    • , Xichen Bao
    • , Peiyi Wang
    • , Jianxun Qi
    • , George F. Gao
    •  & Yi Shi

Amendments & Corrections

Nature Outlook

  • Nature Outlook |

    Cancer diagnosis

    Despite marked improvements in treatment, cancer is still the cause of roughly 17% of deaths globally.

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