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Volume 579 Issue 7799, 19 March 2020

Variety show

The cover shows a royal flycatcher, one species in the rich diversity of bird life in Costa Rica. In this week’s issue, Nicholas Hendershot and his colleagues discuss the long-term changes in avian biodiversity brought about by agricultural practices and climate change. Over the course of 18 years, the researchers repeatedly surveyed 48 sites in Costa Rica that represented a range of land use from natural forest to diversified and intensive agriculture. They found that long-term biodiversity changes were greatest in the most intensively managed landscapes, effects that were magnified under drought conditions. The species diversity within diversified agriculture remained high over the long term, indicating that this form of land management could play a powerful role in biodiversity conservation. Diversity in intensive agriculture, however, declined progressively.

Cover image: J. Nicholas Hendershot

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  • News & Views |

    Neurogenetic tools commonly used in model organisms have now been adapted to investigate feeding behaviour in the fly Drosophila sechellia. The experiments shed light on why this fly is such a fussy eater.

    • Jessica L. Zung
    • Carolyn S. McBride
  • News & Views |

    A newly discovered 66.7-million-year-old fossil bird excavated in Belgium provides us with the best evidence so far for understanding when the living groups of birds first evolved and began to diverge.

    • Kevin Padian
  • Articles

  • Article |

    Study of WSe2/WS2 moiré superlattices reveals the phase diagram of the triangular-lattice Hubbard model, including a Mott insulating state at half-filling and a possible magnetic quantum phase transition near 0.6 filling.

    • Yanhao Tang
    • Lizhong Li
    • Kin Fai Mak
  • Article |

    A theoretical framework describing the hydrodynamic interactions between a passive particle and an active medium in out-of-equilibrium systems predicts long-range Lévy flights for the diffusing particle driven by the density of the active component.

    • Kiyoshi Kanazawa
    • Tomohiko G. Sano
    • Adrian Baule
  • Article |

    Atomic-resolution observations combined with simulations show that grain boundaries within elemental copper undergo temperature-induced solid-state phase transformation to different structures; grain boundary phases can also coexist and are kinetically trapped structures.

    • Thorsten Meiners
    • Timofey Frolov
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    An automated synthesis instrument comprising a series of continuous flow modules that are radially arranged around a central switching station can achieve both linear and convergent syntheses.

    • Sourav Chatterjee
    • Mara Guidi
    • Kerry Gilmore
  • Article |

    Coral records indicate that the variability of the Indian Ocean Dipole over the last millennium is strongly coupled to variability in the El Niño/Southern Oscillation and that recent extremes are unusual but not unprecedented.

    • Nerilie J. Abram
    • Nicky M. Wright
    • David Heslop
  • Article |

    Variation in vegetation and climate affects the long-term changes in bird communities in intensive-agriculture habitats, but not in diversified-agriculture or natural-forest habitats, by changing the local colonization and extinction rates.

    • J. Nicholas Hendershot
    • Jeffrey R. Smith
    • Gretchen C. Daily
  • Article |

    A neurogenetic model, Drosophila sechellia—a relative of Drosophila melanogaster that has developed an extreme specialization for a single host plant—sheds light on the evolution of interspecific differences in behaviour.

    • Thomas O. Auer
    • Mohammed A. Khallaf
    • Richard Benton
  • Article |

    A quantitative atlas of the transcriptomes, proteomes and phosphoproteomes of 30 tissues of the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana provides a valuable resource for plant research.

    • Julia Mergner
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    Haploid genetic screening of cells under different types of mitochondrial perturbation shows that a pathway involving OMA1, DELE1 and the eIF2α kinase HRI communicates mitochondrial stress to the cytosol to trigger the integrated stress response.

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    Single-molecule visualization shows that condensin—a motor protein that extrudes DNA in one direction only—can encounter and pass a second condensin molecule to form a new type of DNA loop that gathers DNA from both sides.

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    Analyses reveal a previously undescribed transmembrane protein fold in the endoplasmic reticulum-based glucosyltransferase ALG6 and provide a structural basis for understanding the glucose transfer mechanism.

    • Joël S. Bloch
    • Giorgio Pesciullesi
    • Kaspar P. Locher
  • Article |

    The cryo-electron microscopy structure of the 16-subunit yeast SWI/SNF complex RSC in complex with a nucleosome substrate provides insights into the chromatin-remodelling function of this family of protein complexes.

    • Felix R. Wagner
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  • Article |

    The cryo-electron microscopy structure of the yeast SWI/SNF complex bound to a nucleosome substrate provides insights into the chromatin-remodelling function of this family of protein complexes and suggests mechanisms by which the mutated proteins may cause cancer.

    • Yan Han
    • Alexis A Reyes
    • Yuan He

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