Volume 578 Issue 7795, 20 February 2020

Twisted nerves

The cover image shows an artist’s impression of solid tumours clustering near neurons. In this week’s issue, Moran Amit and his colleagues show that head and neck cancer cells can manipulate nearby nerve cells into promoting tumour growth. The researchers find that the cancer cells secrete vesicles containing small RNA molecules (microRNAs) that are taken up by nearby sensory nerve cells. If the cancer cells have a mutant form of the p53 protein, then the vesicles secreted do not feature a microRNA that blocks neuronal growth. As a result, the vesicles promote the proliferation of nerve cells and reprogram them to be adrenergic neurons, which aids tumour growth.

Cover image: David M. Aten

This Week

News in Focus

Books & Arts

Opinion

Work

Research

    News & Views

  • News & Views |

    The non-coding RNA Xist has been shown to enlist the SPEN protein to recruit a team of protein complexes — initiating the process that prevents transcription of one of the two X chromosomes found in female mammalian cells.

    • Jackson B. Trotman
    •  & J. Mauro Calabrese
  • News & Views |

    Most surfaces are rough at many length scales. Simulations show that this characteristic originates at the atomic level in metal-based materials when smooth blocks of these materials are compressed.

    • Astrid S. de Wijn
  • News & Views |

    Tumours often grow entangled among neurons, which makes the cancer difficult to treat. The finding that cancer cells hijack neighbouring neurons to promote tumour growth suggests new therapeutic targets.

    • Marco Napoli
    •  & Elsa R. Flores
  • News & Views |

    The breaking of a property of nature called charge–parity–time symmetry might explain the observed lack of antimatter in the Universe. Scientists have now hunted for such symmetry breaking using the antimatter atom antihydrogen.

    • Randolf Pohl
  • News & Views |

    In 1990, an oceanographer who had never worked on climate science proposed that ice-age cooling has been amplified by increased concentrations of iron in the sea — and instigated an explosion of research.

    • Heather Stoll
  • News & Views |

    A process termed ubiquitination mediates the regulated destruction of cellular proteins, thereby preventing disease or infection. Structural data now reveal how a crucial regulator of ubiquitination enzymes coordinates this process.

    • Raymond J. Deshaies
    •  & Nathan W. Pierce
  • Articles

  • Article | | Open Access

    Precision measurements of the 1S–2P transition in antihydrogen that take into account the standard Zeeman and hyperfine effects confirm the predictions of quantum electrodynamics.

    • M. Ahmadi
    • , B. X. R. Alves
    • , C. J. Baker
    • , W. Bertsche
    • , A. Capra
    • , C. Carruth
    • , C. L. Cesar
    • , M. Charlton
    • , S. Cohen
    • , R. Collister
    • , S. Eriksson
    • , A. Evans
    • , N. Evetts
    • , J. Fajans
    • , T. Friesen
    • , M. C. Fujiwara
    • , D. R. Gill
    • , P. Granum
    • , J. S. Hangst
    • , W. N. Hardy
    • , M. E. Hayden
    • , E. D. Hunter
    • , C. A. Isaac
    • , M. A. Johnson
    • , J. M. Jones
    • , S. A. Jones
    • , S. Jonsell
    • , A. Khramov
    • , P. Knapp
    • , L. Kurchaninov
    • , N. Madsen
    • , D. Maxwell
    • , J. T. K. McKenna
    • , S. Menary
    • , J. M. Michan
    • , T. Momose
    • , J. J. Munich
    • , K. Olchanski
    • , A. Olin
    • , P. Pusa
    • , C. Ø. Rasmussen
    • , F. Robicheaux
    • , R. L. Sacramento
    • , M. Sameed
    • , E. Sarid
    • , D. M. Silveira
    • , C. So
    • , D. M. Starko
    • , G. Stutter
    • , T. D. Tharp
    • , R. I. Thompson
    • , D. P. van der Werf
    •  & J. S. Wurtele
  • Article |

    Direct measurement of the Berry curvature and the quantum metric of photonic modes in a high-finesse planar microcavity is achieved, enabling quantitative prediction of the independently measured anomalous Hall drift.

    • A. Gianfrate
    • , O. Bleu
    • , L. Dominici
    • , V. Ardizzone
    • , M. De Giorgi
    • , D. Ballarini
    • , G. Lerario
    • , K. W. West
    • , L. N. Pfeiffer
    • , D. D. Solnyshkov
    • , D. Sanvitto
    •  & G. Malpuech
  • Article |

    Generation of intense attosecond waveforms with independently controllable amplitude and phase is performed by using a seeded free-electron laser.

    • Praveen Kumar Maroju
    • , Cesare Grazioli
    • , Michele Di Fraia
    • , Matteo Moioli
    • , Dominik Ertel
    • , Hamed Ahmadi
    • , Oksana Plekan
    • , Paola Finetti
    • , Enrico Allaria
    • , Luca Giannessi
    • , Giovanni De Ninno
    • , Carlo Spezzani
    • , Giuseppe Penco
    • , Simone Spampinati
    • , Alexander Demidovich
    • , Miltcho B. Danailov
    • , Roberto Borghes
    • , George Kourousias
    • , Carlos Eduardo Sanches Dos Reis
    • , Fulvio Billé
    • , Alberto A. Lutman
    • , Richard J. Squibb
    • , Raimund Feifel
    • , Paolo Carpeggiani
    • , Maurizio Reduzzi
    • , Tommaso Mazza
    • , Michael Meyer
    • , Samuel Bengtsson
    • , Neven Ibrakovic
    • , Emma Rose Simpson
    • , Johan Mauritsson
    • , Tamás Csizmadia
    • , Mathieu Dumergue
    • , Sergei Kühn
    • , Harshitha Nandiga Gopalakrishna
    • , Daehyun You
    • , Kiyoshi Ueda
    • , Marie Labeye
    • , Jens Egebjerg Bækhøj
    • , Kenneth J. Schafer
    • , Elena V. Gryzlova
    • , Alexei N. Grum-Grzhimailo
    • , Kevin C. Prince
    • , Carlo Callegari
    •  & Giuseppe Sansone
  • Article |

    A device involving a polytetrafluoroethylene film, an indium tin oxide substrate and an aluminium electrode allows improved electricity generation from water droplets, which bridge the previously disconnected circuit components.

    • Wanghuai Xu
    • , Huanxi Zheng
    • , Yuan Liu
    • , Xiaofeng Zhou
    • , Chao Zhang
    • , Yuxin Song
    • , Xu Deng
    • , Michael Leung
    • , Zhengbao Yang
    • , Ronald X. Xu
    • , Zhong Lin Wang
    • , Xiao Cheng Zeng
    •  & Zuankai Wang
  • Article |

    A closed-loop machine learning methodology of optimizing fast-charging protocols for lithium-ion batteries can identify high-lifetime charging protocols accurately and efficiently, considerably reducing the experimental time compared to simpler approaches.

    • Peter M. Attia
    • , Aditya Grover
    • , Norman Jin
    • , Kristen A. Severson
    • , Todor M. Markov
    • , Yang-Hung Liao
    • , Michael H. Chen
    • , Bryan Cheong
    • , Nicholas Perkins
    • , Zi Yang
    • , Patrick K. Herring
    • , Muratahan Aykol
    • , Stephen J. Harris
    • , Richard D. Braatz
    • , Stefano Ermon
    •  & William C. Chueh
  • Article |

    Isotopic evidence from ice cores indicates that preindustrial-era geological methane emissions were lower than previously thought, suggesting that present-day emissions of methane from fossil fuels are underestimated.

    • Benjamin Hmiel
    • , V. V. Petrenko
    • , M. N. Dyonisius
    • , C. Buizert
    • , A. M. Smith
    • , P. F. Place
    • , C. Harth
    • , R. Beaudette
    • , Q. Hua
    • , B. Yang
    • , I. Vimont
    • , S. E. Michel
    • , J. P. Severinghaus
    • , D. Etheridge
    • , T. Bromley
    • , J. Schmitt
    • , X. Faïn
    • , R. F. Weiss
    •  & E. Dlugokencky
  • Article |

    A structure homologous to the mammalian claustrum exists in reptiles and has a role in generating sharp waves in the brain during slow-wave sleep.

    • Hiroaki Norimoto
    • , Lorenz A. Fenk
    • , Hsing-Hsi Li
    • , Maria Antonietta Tosches
    • , Tatiana Gallego-Flores
    • , David Hain
    • , Sam Reiter
    • , Riho Kobayashi
    • , Angeles Macias
    • , Anja Arends
    • , Michaela Klinkmann
    •  & Gilles Laurent
  • Article |

    The lysosomal polyamine transporter ATP13A2 controls the cellular polyamine content, and impaired lysosomal polyamine export represents a lysosome-dependent cell death pathway that may be implicated in ATP13A2-associated neurodegeneration.

    • Sarah van Veen
    • , Shaun Martin
    • , Chris Van den Haute
    • , Veronick Benoy
    • , Joseph Lyons
    • , Roeland Vanhoutte
    • , Jan Pascal Kahler
    • , Jean-Paul Decuypere
    • , Géraldine Gelders
    • , Eric Lambie
    • , Jeffrey Zielich
    • , Johannes V. Swinnen
    • , Wim Annaert
    • , Patrizia Agostinis
    • , Bart Ghesquière
    • , Steven Verhelst
    • , Veerle Baekelandt
    • , Jan Eggermont
    •  & Peter Vangheluwe
  • Article | | Open Access

    Genomic analyses of major clades of huge phages sampled from across Earth’s ecosystems show that they have diverse genetic inventories, including a variety of CRISPR–Cas systems and translation-relevant genes.

    • Basem Al-Shayeb
    • , Rohan Sachdeva
    • , Lin-Xing Chen
    • , Fred Ward
    • , Patrick Munk
    • , Audra Devoto
    • , Cindy J. Castelle
    • , Matthew R. Olm
    • , Keith Bouma-Gregson
    • , Yuki Amano
    • , Christine He
    • , Raphaël Méheust
    • , Brandon Brooks
    • , Alex Thomas
    • , Adi Lavy
    • , Paula Matheus-Carnevali
    • , Christine Sun
    • , Daniela S. A. Goltsman
    • , Mikayla A. Borton
    • , Allison Sharrar
    • , Alexander L. Jaffe
    • , Tara C. Nelson
    • , Rose Kantor
    • , Ray Keren
    • , Katherine R. Lane
    • , Ibrahim F. Farag
    • , Shufei Lei
    • , Kari Finstad
    • , Ronald Amundson
    • , Karthik Anantharaman
    • , Jinglie Zhou
    • , Alexander J. Probst
    • , Mary E. Power
    • , Susannah G. Tringe
    • , Wen-Jun Li
    • , Kelly Wrighton
    • , Sue Harrison
    • , Michael Morowitz
    • , David A. Relman
    • , Jennifer A. Doudna
    • , Anne-Catherine Lehours
    • , Lesley Warren
    • , Jamie H. D. Cate
    • , Joanne M. Santini
    •  & Jillian F. Banfield
  • Article | | Open Access

    Analysis of metagenomics data revealed that large and giant viruses are globally widely distributed and are associated with most major eukaryotic lineages.

    • Frederik Schulz
    • , Simon Roux
    • , David Paez-Espino
    • , Sean Jungbluth
    • , David A. Walsh
    • , Vincent J. Denef
    • , Katherine D. McMahon
    • , Konstantinos T. Konstantinidis
    • , Emiley A. Eloe-Fadrosh
    • , Nikos C. Kyrpides
    •  & Tanja Woyke
  • Article |

    AQP5 is identified as a marker for pyloric stem cells in humans and mice, and stem cells in the AQP5+ compartment are shown to be a source of invasive gastric cancer in mouse models.

    • Si Hui Tan
    • , Yada Swathi
    • , Shawna Tan
    • , Jasmine Goh
    • , Ryo Seishima
    • , Kazuhiro Murakami
    • , Masanobu Oshima
    • , Toshikatsu Tsuji
    • , Phyllis Phuah
    • , Liang Thing Tan
    • , Esther Wong
    • , Aliya Fatehullah
    • , Taotao Sheng
    • , Shamaine Wei Ting Ho
    • , Heike I. Grabsch
    • , Supriya Srivastava
    • , Ming Teh
    • , Simon L. I. J. Denil
    • , Seri Mustafah
    • , Patrick Tan
    • , Asim Shabbir
    • , Jimmy So
    • , Khay Guan Yeoh
    •  & Nick Barker
  • Article |

    In mouse studies, metformin treatment results in increased secretion of growth/differentiation factor 15 (GDF15), which prevents weight gain in response to high-fat diet, and GDF15-independent lowering of circulating blood glucose.

    • Anthony P. Coll
    • , Michael Chen
    • , Pranali Taskar
    • , Debra Rimmington
    • , Satish Patel
    • , John A. Tadross
    • , Irene Cimino
    • , Ming Yang
    • , Paul Welsh
    • , Samuel Virtue
    • , Deborah A. Goldspink
    • , Emily L. Miedzybrodzka
    • , Adam R. Konopka
    • , Raul Ruiz Esponda
    • , Jeffrey T.-J. Huang
    • , Y. C. Loraine Tung
    • , Sergio Rodriguez-Cuenca
    • , Rute A. Tomaz
    • , Heather P. Harding
    • , Audrey Melvin
    • , Giles S. H. Yeo
    • , David Preiss
    • , Antonio Vidal-Puig
    • , Ludovic Vallier
    • , K. Sreekumaran Nair
    • , Nicholas J. Wareham
    • , David Ron
    • , Fiona M. Gribble
    • , Frank Reimann
    • , Naveed Sattar
    • , David B. Savage
    • , Bernard B. Allan
    •  & Stephen O’Rahilly
  • Article |

    MicroRNAs from head and neck cancer cells, shuttled to sensory neurons by extracellular vesicles, cause a shift to an adrenergic neuronal phenotype that promotes tumour progression.

    • Moran Amit
    • , Hideaki Takahashi
    • , Mihnea Paul Dragomir
    • , Antje Lindemann
    • , Frederico O. Gleber-Netto
    • , Curtis R. Pickering
    • , Simone Anfossi
    • , Abdullah A. Osman
    • , Yu Cai
    • , Rong Wang
    • , Erik Knutsen
    • , Masayoshi Shimizu
    • , Cristina Ivan
    • , Xiayu Rao
    • , Jing Wang
    • , Deborah A. Silverman
    • , Samantha Tam
    • , Mei Zhao
    • , Carlos Caulin
    • , Assaf Zinger
    • , Ennio Tasciotti
    • , Patrick M. Dougherty
    • , Adel El-Naggar
    • , George A. Calin
    •  & Jeffrey N. Myers
  • Article |

    The transcriptional repressor SPEN bridges the non-coding RNA Xist to transcription machinery, histone deacetylases and chromatin remodelling factors to initiate X-chromosome inactivation.

    • François Dossin
    • , Inês Pinheiro
    • , Jan J. Żylicz
    • , Julia Roensch
    • , Samuel Collombet
    • , Agnès Le Saux
    • , Tomasz Chelmicki
    • , Mikaël Attia
    • , Varun Kapoor
    • , Ye Zhan
    • , Florent Dingli
    • , Damarys Loew
    • , Thomas Mercher
    • , Job Dekker
    •  & Edith Heard
  • Article |

    A cryo-electron microscopy structure provides insights into the activation of cullin–RING E3 ligases by NEDD8 and the consequent catalysis of ubiquitylation reactions.

    • Kheewoong Baek
    • , David T. Krist
    • , J. Rajan Prabu
    • , Spencer Hill
    • , Maren Klügel
    • , Lisa-Marie Neumaier
    • , Susanne von Gronau
    • , Gary Kleiger
    •  & Brenda A. Schulman
  • Article |

    The cryo-EM structure of the γ-tubulin ring complex (γ-TuRC) from Xenopus laevis provides insights into the molecular organization of the complex, and shows that actin is a structural component that is functionally relevant to microtubule nucleation.

    • Peng Liu
    • , Erik Zupa
    • , Annett Neuner
    • , Anna Böhler
    • , Justus Loerke
    • , Dirk Flemming
    • , Thomas Ruppert
    • , Till Rudack
    • , Christoph Peter
    • , Christian Spahn
    • , Oliver J. Gruss
    • , Stefan Pfeffer
    •  & Elmar Schiebel
  • Article |

    The crystal structure of the SA2–SCC1 subunits of human cohesin in complex with CTCF reveals the molecular basis of the cohesin–CTCF interaction that enables the dynamic regulation of chromatin folding.

    • Yan Li
    • , Judith H. I. Haarhuis
    • , Ángela Sedeño Cacciatore
    • , Roel Oldenkamp
    • , Marjon S. van Ruiten
    • , Laureen Willems
    • , Hans Teunissen
    • , Kyle W. Muir
    • , Elzo de Wit
    • , Benjamin D. Rowland
    •  & Daniel Panne
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