Volume 560 Issue 7716, 2 August 2018

Volume 560 Issue 7716

Deep blue

The extent to which Earth’s surface materials are recycled into the deep mantle is difficult to evaluate. In this week’s issue, Evan Smith and his colleagues shed light on the matter through an examination of blue (type IIb) diamonds. These rare gems get their colour from boron, an element predominantly found in the crust, which suggests boron somehow made its way to the high-pressure environment below the surface where diamonds form. The team’s analysis of mineral inclusions trapped inside boron-bearing diamonds reveals that they crystallized in oceanic lithosphere (oceanic tectonic plates) that had been subducted down to the lower mantle (at least 660 km below Earth’s surface, much deeper than the 200 km limit typical for most diamonds), meaning blue diamonds are among the most deeply sourced diamonds known. The researchers propose that boron was carried down in seawater-altered oceanic lithosphere, illustrating a viable pathway for the deep-mantle recycling of crustal elements.

Cover image: Jian Xin Liao/© 2018 GIA

This Week

News in Focus

Comment

Careers

Futures

Research

    News & Views

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    • Kiona Ogle
  • News & Views |

    An autoimmune attack on cells that make the hormone insulin causes type 1 diabetes. A mouse study reveals that pancreatic-cell release of insulin peptide fragments into the bloodstream triggers this harmful process.

    • Jiajie Wei
    •  & Jonathan W. Yewdell
  • News & Views |

    The mystery of where blue diamonds get their colour from has been solved — and reveals a geochemical pathway from Earth’s surface to the lower mantle.

    • Andrew Mitchinson
  • News & Views |

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    • Sheng Hui
    •  & Joshua D. Rabinowitz
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    • Christian Mayer
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  • Reviews

  • Review Article |

    The application and development of machine-learning methods used in experiments at the frontiers of particle physics (such as the Large Hadron Collider) are reviewed, including recent advances based on deep learning.

    • Alexander Radovic
    • , Mike Williams
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    • , Daniele Bonacorsi
    • , Alexander Himmel
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  • Articles

  • Article |

    Analysis of more than 1,500 microbial genomes sheds light on the processing of carbon released as permafrost thaws.

    • Ben J. Woodcroft
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    • , Carmody K. McCalley
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    • Hisayuki Yao
    • , Trevor T. Price
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  • Letters

  • Letter |

    Direct coupling of aliphatic C–H nucleophiles to aryl electrophiles is described, through the combination of light-driven polyoxometalate hydrogen atom transfer and nickel catalysis.

    • Ian B. Perry
    • , Thomas F. Brewer
    • , Patrick J. Sarver
    • , Danielle M. Schultz
    • , Daniel A. DiRocco
    •  & David W. C. MacMillan
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    • Thibaut Caley
    • , Thomas Extier
    • , James A. Collins
    • , Enno Schefuß
    • , Lydie Dupont
    • , Bruno Malaizé
    • , Linda Rossignol
    • , Antoine Souron
    • , Erin L. McClymont
    • , Francisco J. Jimenez-Espejo
    • , Carmen García-Comas
    • , Frédérique Eynaud
    • , Philippe Martinez
    • , Didier M. Roche
    • , Stephan J. Jorry
    • , Karine Charlier
    • , Mélanie Wary
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    • , Isabelle Billy
    •  & Jacques Giraudeau
  • Letter |

    Global soil respiration is rising, probably in response to environmental changes, suggesting that climate-driven losses of soil carbon are occurring worldwide.

    • Ben Bond-Lamberty
    • , Vanessa L. Bailey
    • , Min Chen
    • , Christopher M. Gough
    •  & Rodrigo Vargas
  • Letter |

    Mineral inclusions in blue boron-bearing diamonds reveal that such diamonds are among the deepest diamonds ever found and indicate a viable pathway for the deep-mantle recycling of crustal elements.

    • Evan M. Smith
    • , Steven B. Shirey
    • , Stephen H. Richardson
    • , Fabrizio Nestola
    • , Emma S. Bullock
    • , Jianhua Wang
    •  & Wuyi Wang
  • Letter |

    Two populations of Anolis lizards that survived Hurricanes Irma and Maria had larger toepads, longer forelimbs and shorter hindlimbs relative to the pre-hurricane populations, which suggests hurricane-induced natural selection.

    • Colin M. Donihue
    • , Anthony Herrel
    • , Anne-Claire Fabre
    • , Ambika Kamath
    • , Anthony J. Geneva
    • , Thomas W. Schoener
    • , Jason J. Kolbe
    •  & Jonathan B. Losos
  • Letter |

    Fish and invertebrate communities transformed across the span of the Great Barrier Reef following the 2016 bleaching event due to a decline in coral-feeding fishes resulting from coral loss, and because of different regional responses of key trophic groups to the direct effect of temperature.

    • Rick D. Stuart-Smith
    • , Christopher J. Brown
    • , Daniela M. Ceccarelli
    •  & Graham J. Edgar
  • Letter |

    A comparative metabolomics approach is used to identify succinate as a key activator of thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue.

    • Evanna L. Mills
    • , Kerry A. Pierce
    • , Mark P. Jedrychowski
    • , Ryan Garrity
    • , Sally Winther
    • , Sara Vidoni
    • , Takeshi Yoneshiro
    • , Jessica B. Spinelli
    • , Gina Z. Lu
    • , Lawrence Kazak
    • , Alexander S. Banks
    • , Marcia C. Haigis
    • , Shingo Kajimura
    • , Michael P. Murphy
    • , Steven P. Gygi
    • , Clary B. Clish
    •  & Edward T. Chouchani
  • Letter |

    A sensitive T cell tracking assay reveals immunogenic activity of specific catabolized peptide fragments of insulin and their effects on T cell activity in lymph nodes, highlighting communication between pancreatic islets and lymphoid tissue.

    • Xiaoxiao Wan
    • , Bernd H. Zinselmeyer
    • , Pavel N. Zakharov
    • , Anthony N. Vomund
    • , Ruth Taniguchi
    • , Laura Santambrogio
    • , Mark S. Anderson
    • , Cheryl F. Lichti
    •  & Emil R. Unanue
  • Letter |

    The 53BP1 effector complex shieldin is involved in non-homologous end-joining and immunoglobulin class switching, and acts to protect DNA ends to facilitate the repair of DNA by 53BP1.

    • Sylvie M. Noordermeer
    • , Salomé Adam
    • , Dheva Setiaputra
    • , Marco Barazas
    • , Stephen J. Pettitt
    • , Alexanda K. Ling
    • , Michele Olivieri
    • , Alejandro Álvarez-Quilón
    • , Nathalie Moatti
    • , Michal Zimmermann
    • , Stefano Annunziato
    • , Dragomir B. Krastev
    • , Feifei Song
    • , Inger Brandsma
    • , Jessica Frankum
    • , Rachel Brough
    • , Alana Sherker
    • , Sébastien Landry
    • , Rachel K. Szilard
    • , Meagan M. Munro
    • , Andrea McEwan
    • , Théo Goullet de Rugy
    • , Zhen-Yuan Lin
    • , Traver Hart
    • , Jason Moffat
    • , Anne-Claude Gingras
    • , Alberto Martin
    • , Haico van Attikum
    • , Jos Jonkers
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    • , Sven Rottenberg
    •  & Daniel Durocher
  • Letter |

    The specificity of 53BP1 and its co-factors for particular DNA substrates during non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) derives from REV7–shieldin, a four-subunit DNA-binding complex that is required for REV7-dependent NHEJ but not for REV7-dependent DNA interstrand cross-link repair.

    • Hind Ghezraoui
    • , Catarina Oliveira
    • , Jordan R. Becker
    • , Kirstin Bilham
    • , Daniela Moralli
    • , Consuelo Anzilotti
    • , Roman Fischer
    • , Mukta Deobagkar-Lele
    • , Maria Sanchiz-Calvo
    • , Elena Fueyo-Marcos
    • , Sarah Bonham
    • , Benedikt M. Kessler
    • , Sven Rottenberg
    • , Richard J. Cornall
    • , Catherine M. Green
    •  & J. Ross Chapman

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