Volume 555 Issue 7698, 29 March 2018

Volume 555 Issue 7698

The dark caves that blind Mexican cavefish (Astyanax mexicanus) call home is an extreme environment in which food is scarce. As a result, the fish lead a famine-and-feast way life that has led them to adapt in a remarkable way, as Nicolas Rohner, Cliff Tabin and their colleagues reveal in this week's issue. The cavefish carry a mutation in the insulin receptor that would cause severe type 2 diabetes in humans. The resulting high blood-glucose levels seem to cause no ill effects in the fish, which are healthy and have a normal lifespan. The authors speculate that the fish have evolved compensatory mechanisms in their regulation of glucose that allow them to survive in their challenging environment. Cover image: Paulo Oliveira/Alamy

This Week

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Research

    Brief Communications Arising

  • Brief Communications Arising |

    • Cameron K. Ghalambor
    • , Kim L. Hoke
    • , Emily W. Ruell
    • , Eva K. Fischer
    • , David N. Reznick
    •  & Kimberly A. Hughes
  • News & Views

  • News & Views |

    The geometry of putative ancient shorelines on Mars suggests that these features were deformed by the growth of a massive volcanic region — a finding that has implications for the climate, geology and hydrology of early Mars.

    • Maria T. Zuber
  • News & Views |

    Of the various temperature-sensitive ion channels identified previously, three have now been found to act in concert to detect painful heat and initiate protective reflexes.

    • Rose Z. Hill
    •  & Diana M. Bautista
  • News & Views |

    Software that devises effective schemes for synthetic chemistry has depended on the input of rules from researchers. A system is now reported in which an artificial-intelligence program learns the rules for itself.

    • Derek Lowe
  • News & Views |

    The immune system protects the body by responding to invading organisms. But how is an attack on useful resident microbes prevented? A pathway has now been identified that allows immune cells to sense and respond to beneficial bacteria.

    • Paul Klenerman
    •  & Graham Ogg
  • News & Views |

    Conventional origami-based techniques for structural design have a limited range of folding patterns. An approach inspired by the wings of earwigs produces structures that were not possible using previous methods.

    • Ryan Wilkinson
  • News & Views |

    Some Mexican cavefish have a mutation in an insulin receptor protein that affects blood-glucose regulation. The same mutation causes diabetes and health problems in humans, but the diabetic cavefish thrive.

    • Sylvie Rétaux
  • News & Views |

    A clever combination of techniques has enabled, for the first time, simultaneous visualization of the 3D waves of electrical and mechanical activity that are responsible for many cases of sudden cardiac death.

    • José Jalife
  • Articles

  • Article |

    A single spin in silicon is strongly coupled to a microwave-frequency photon and coherent single-spin dynamics are observed using circuit quantum electrodynamics.

    • X. Mi
    • , M. Benito
    • , S. Putz
    • , D. M. Zajac
    • , J. M. Taylor
    • , Guido Burkard
    •  & J. R. Petta
  • Article |

    Deep neural networks and Monte Carlo tree search can plan chemical syntheses by training models on a huge database of published reactions; their predicted synthetic routes cannot be distinguished from those a human chemist would design.

    • Marwin H. S. Segler
    • , Mike Preuss
    •  & Mark P. Waller
  • Article |

    Analysis of rare de novo mutations in gene regulatory elements suggests that 1–3% of patients with neurodevelopmental disorders carry such mutations in elements that are active in the fetal brain.

    • Patrick J. Short
    • , Jeremy F. McRae
    • , Giuseppe Gallone
    • , Alejandro Sifrim
    • , Hyejung Won
    • , Daniel H. Geschwind
    • , Caroline F. Wright
    • , Helen V. Firth
    • , David R. FitzPatrick
    • , Jeffrey C. Barrett
    •  & Matthew E. Hurles
  • Article |

    Single-cell recordings show that CGRP-expressing neurons in the parabrachial nucleus in mice respond to both noxious stimuli and signals of feeding satiety.

    • Carlos A. Campos
    • , Anna J. Bowen
    • , Carolyn W. Roman
    •  & Richard D. Palmiter
  • Article |

    A screen of more than 1,000 drugs shows that about a quarter of the non-antibiotic drugs inhibit the growth of at least one commensal bacterial strain in vitro.

    • Lisa Maier
    • , Mihaela Pruteanu
    • , Michael Kuhn
    • , Georg Zeller
    • , Anja Telzerow
    • , Exene Erin Anderson
    • , Ana Rita Brochado
    • , Keith Conrad Fernandez
    • , Hitomi Dose
    • , Hirotada Mori
    • , Kiran Raosaheb Patil
    • , Peer Bork
    •  & Athanasios Typas
  • Letters

  • Letter |

    Galaxies normally have far more dark matter than normal matter, but the dynamics of objects within the ultra-diffuse galaxy NGC1052–DF2 suggest that it has a very little dark matter component.

    • Pieter van Dokkum
    • , Shany Danieli
    • , Yotam Cohen
    • , Allison Merritt
    • , Aaron J. Romanowsky
    • , Roberto Abraham
    • , Jean Brodie
    • , Charlie Conroy
    • , Deborah Lokhorst
    • , Lamiya Mowla
    • , Ewan O’Sullivan
    •  & Jielai Zhang
  • Letter |

    A two-qubit quantum processor in a silicon device is demonstrated, which can perform the Deutsch–Josza algorithm and the Grover search algorithm.

    • T. F. Watson
    • , S. G. J. Philips
    • , E. Kawakami
    • , D. R. Ward
    • , P. Scarlino
    • , M. Veldhorst
    • , D. E. Savage
    • , M. G. Lagally
    • , Mark Friesen
    • , S. N. Coppersmith
    • , M. A. Eriksson
    •  & L. M. K. Vandersypen
  • Letter |

    Fe3Sn2 hosts massive Dirac fermions, owing to the underlying symmetry properties of the bilayer kagome lattice in the ferromagnetic state and the atomic spin–orbit coupling.

    • Linda Ye
    • , Mingu Kang
    • , Junwei Liu
    • , Felix von Cube
    • , Christina R. Wicker
    • , Takehito Suzuki
    • , Chris Jozwiak
    • , Aaron Bostwick
    • , Eli Rotenberg
    • , David C. Bell
    • , Liang Fu
    • , Riccardo Comin
    •  & Joseph G. Checkelsky
  • Letter |

    Ancient shorelines on Mars must have formed before and during the emplacement of the Tharsis volcanic province, instead of afterwards as previously assumed, suggesting that oceans on Mars formed early.

    • Robert I. Citron
    • , Michael Manga
    •  & Douglas J. Hemingway
  • Letter |

    Cavefish populations of the Mexican tetra, Astyanax mexicanus, carry a mutation in the insulin receptor gene that renders them insulin- and starvation-resistant relative to surface populations of the same species.

    • Misty R. Riddle
    • , Ariel C. Aspiras
    • , Karin Gaudenz
    • , Robert Peuß
    • , Jenny Y. Sung
    • , Brian Martineau
    • , Megan Peavey
    • , Andrew C. Box
    • , Julius A. Tabin
    • , Suzanne McGaugh
    • , Richard Borowsky
    • , Clifford J. Tabin
    •  & Nicolas Rohner
  • Letter |

    Genetic similarity among late Neanderthals is predicted well by their geographical location, and although some of these Neanderthals were contemporaneous with early modern humans, their genomes show no evidence of recent gene flow from modern humans.

    • Mateja Hajdinjak
    • , Qiaomei Fu
    • , Alexander Hübner
    • , Martin Petr
    • , Fabrizio Mafessoni
    • , Steffi Grote
    • , Pontus Skoglund
    • , Vagheesh Narasimham
    • , Hélène Rougier
    • , Isabelle Crevecoeur
    • , Patrick Semal
    • , Marie Soressi
    • , Sahra Talamo
    • , Jean-Jacques Hublin
    • , Ivan Gušić
    • , Željko Kućan
    • , Pavao Rudan
    • , Liubov V. Golovanova
    • , Vladimir B. Doronichev
    • , Cosimo Posth
    • , Johannes Krause
    • , Petra Korlević
    • , Sarah Nagel
    • , Birgit Nickel
    • , Montgomery Slatkin
    • , Nick Patterson
    • , David Reich
    • , Kay Prüfer
    • , Matthias Meyer
    • , Svante Pääbo
    •  & Janet Kelso
  • Letter |

    A new magnetoencephalography system allows high-spatiotemporal-resolution imaging of human brain function in moving subjects.

    • Elena Boto
    • , Niall Holmes
    • , James Leggett
    • , Gillian Roberts
    • , Vishal Shah
    • , Sofie S. Meyer
    • , Leonardo Duque Muñoz
    • , Karen J. Mullinger
    • , Tim M. Tierney
    • , Sven Bestmann
    • , Gareth R. Barnes
    • , Richard Bowtell
    •  & Matthew J. Brookes
  • Letter |

    Three transient receptor potential channels (TRPA1, TRPV1 and TRPM3) mediate sensitivity to acute noxious heat in mice in a redundant system; mice lacking all three show severe deficits in heat sensing, whereas double-knockout mice do not.

    • Ine Vandewauw
    • , Katrien De Clercq
    • , Marie Mulier
    • , Katharina Held
    • , Silvia Pinto
    • , Nele Van Ranst
    • , Andrei Segal
    • , Thierry Voet
    • , Rudi Vennekens
    • , Katharina Zimmermann
    • , Joris Vriens
    •  & Thomas Voets
  • Letter |

    Using optical mapping and 3D ultrasound, the dynamics and interactions between electrical and mechanical phase singularities were analysed by simultaneously measuring the membrane potential, intracellular calcium concentration and mechanical contractions of the heart during normal rhythm and fibrillation.

    • J. Christoph
    • , M. Chebbok
    • , C. Richter
    • , J. Schröder-Schetelig
    • , P. Bittihn
    • , S. Stein
    • , I. Uzelac
    • , F. H. Fenton
    • , G. Hasenfuß
    • , R. F. Gilmour Jr.
    •  & S. Luther
  • Letter |

    Decreased expression of histidine phosphatase LHPP, a novel tumour suppressor, results in increased global histidine phosphorylation and hepatocellular carcinoma.

    • Sravanth K. Hindupur
    • , Marco Colombi
    • , Stephen R. Fuhs
    • , Matthias S. Matter
    • , Yakir Guri
    • , Kevin Adam
    • , Marion Cornu
    • , Salvatore Piscuoglio
    • , Charlotte K. Y. Ng
    • , Charles Betz
    • , Dritan Liko
    • , Luca Quagliata
    • , Suzette Moes
    • , Paul Jenoe
    • , Luigi M. Terracciano
    • , Markus H. Heim
    • , Tony Hunter
    •  & Michael N. Hall

Corrections