Volume 555 Issue 7696, 15 March 2018

The cover features a false-colour scanning electron microscopy image of the fungus Aspergillus fumigatus showing the specialized branches that produce its spores. In this issue, Gordon Brown and his colleagues examine the way in which mammals are able to detect melanin in the cell wall of these fungal spores. They identify a new cell receptor called MelLec that senses DHN-melanin and triggers an immune response which plays a key role in protecting the host against Aspergillus infection. Cover image: Kevin Mackenzie and Mark Stappers

Editorial

Article

  • Article | | Open Access

    Analyses of genomes from 914 children, adolescents, and young adults provide a comprehensive resource of genomic alterations across a spectrum of common childhood cancers.

    • Susanne N. Gröbner
    • , Barbara C. Worst
    • , Joachim Weischenfeldt
    • , Ivo Buchhalter
    • , Kortine Kleinheinz
    • , Vasilisa A. Rudneva
    • , Pascal D. Johann
    • , Gnana Prakash Balasubramanian
    • , Maia Segura-Wang
    • , Sebastian Brabetz
    • , Sebastian Bender
    • , Barbara Hutter
    • , Dominik Sturm
    • , Elke Pfaff
    • , Daniel Hübschmann
    • , Gideon Zipprich
    • , Michael Heinold
    • , Jürgen Eils
    • , Christian Lawerenz
    • , Serap Erkek
    • , Sander Lambo
    • , Sebastian Waszak
    • , Claudia Blattmann
    • , Arndt Borkhardt
    • , Michaela Kuhlen
    • , Angelika Eggert
    • , Simone Fulda
    • , Manfred Gessler
    • , Jenny Wegert
    • , Roland Kappler
    • , Daniel Baumhoer
    • , Stefan Burdach
    • , Renate Kirschner-Schwabe
    • , Udo Kontny
    • , Andreas E. Kulozik
    • , Dietmar Lohmann
    • , Simone Hettmer
    • , Cornelia Eckert
    • , Stefan Bielack
    • , Michaela Nathrath
    • , Charlotte Niemeyer
    • , Günther H. Richter
    • , Johannes Schulte
    • , Reiner Siebert
    • , Frank Westermann
    • , Jan J. Molenaar
    • , Gilles Vassal
    • , Hendrik Witt
    • , Peter Lichter
    • , Ursula Weber
    • , Roland Eils
    • , Andrey Korshunov
    • , Olaf Witt
    • , Stefan Pfister
    • , Guido Reifenberger
    • , Jörg Felsberg
    • , Christof von Kalle
    • , Manfred Schmidt
    • , Cynthia Bartholomä
    • , Michael Taylor
    • , Stefan Pfister
    • , David Jones
    • , Peter Lichter
    • , Natalie Jäger
    • , Ivo Buchhalter
    • , Jan Korbel
    • , Adrian Stütz
    • , Tobias Rausch
    • , Bernhard Radlwimmer
    • , Marie-Laure Yaspo
    • , Hans Lehrach
    • , Hans-Jörg Warnatz
    • , Pablo Landgraf
    • , Arndt Borkhardt
    • , Benedikt Brors
    • , Marc Zapatka
    • , Roland Eils
    • , Roland Eils
    • , Jürgen Eils
    • , Christian Lawerenz
    • , Reiner Siebert
    • , Susanne Wagner
    • , Andrea Haake
    • , Julia Richter
    • , Gesine Richter
    • , Roland Eils
    • , Chris Lawerenz
    • , Jürgen Eils
    • , Jules Kerssemakers
    • , Christina Jaeger-Schmidt
    • , Ingrid Scholz
    • , Anke K. Bergmann
    • , Christoph Borst
    • , Birgit Burkhardt
    • , Alexander Claviez
    • , Martin Dreyling
    • , Sonja Eberth
    • , Hermann Einsele
    • , Norbert Frickhofen
    • , Siegfried Haas
    • , Martin-Leo Hansmann
    • , Dennis Karsch
    • , Michael Kneba
    • , Jasmin Lisfeld
    • , Luisa Mantovani-Löffler
    • , Marius Rohde
    • , German Ott
    • , Christina Stadler
    • , Peter Staib
    • , Stephan Stilgenbauer
    • , Lorenz Trümper
    • , Thorsten Zenz
    • , Martin-Leo Hansmann
    • , Dieter Kube
    • , Ralf Küppers
    • , Marc Weniger
    • , Michael Hummel
    • , Wolfram Klapper
    • , Ulrike Kostezka
    • , Dido Lenze
    • , Peter Möller
    • , Andreas Rosenwald
    • , German Ott
    • , Monika Szczepanowski
    • , Ole Ammerpohl
    • , Sietse M. Aukema
    • , Vera Binder
    • , Arndt Borkhardt
    • , Andrea Haake
    • , Jessica I. Hoell
    • , Ellen Leich
    • , Peter Lichter
    • , Cristina López
    • , Inga Nagel
    • , Jordan Pischimariov
    • , Bernhard Radlwimmer
    • , Julia Richter
    • , Philip Rosenstiel
    • , Andreas Rosenwald
    • , Markus Schilhabel
    • , Stefan Schreiber
    • , Inga Vater
    • , Rabea Wagener
    • , Reiner Siebert
    • , Stephan H. Bernhart
    • , Hans Binder
    • , Benedikt Brors
    • , Gero Doose
    • , Roland Eils
    • , Steve Hoffmann
    • , Lydia Hopp
    • , Daniel Hübschmann
    • , Kortine Kleinheinz
    • , Helene Kretzmer
    • , Markus Kreuz
    • , Jan Korbel
    • , David Langenberger
    • , Markus Loeffler
    • , Maciej Rosolowski
    • , Matthias Schlesner
    • , Peter F. Stadler
    • , Stephanie Sungalee
    • , Birgit Burkhardt
    • , Christian P. Kratz
    • , Olaf Witt
    • , Cornelis M. van Tilburg
    • , Christof M. Kramm
    • , Gudrun Fleischhack
    • , Uta Dirksen
    • , Stefan Rutkowski
    • , Michael Frühwald
    • , Katja von Hoff
    • , Stephan Wolf
    • , Thomas Klingebiel
    • , Ewa Koscielniak
    • , Pablo Landgraf
    • , Jan Koster
    • , Adam C. Resnick
    • , Jinghui Zhang
    • , Yanling Liu
    • , Xin Zhou
    • , Angela J. Waanders
    • , Danny A. Zwijnenburg
    • , Pichai Raman
    • , Benedikt Brors
    • , Ursula D. Weber
    • , Paul A. Northcott
    • , Kristian W. Pajtler
    • , Marcel Kool
    • , Rosario M. Piro
    • , Jan O. Korbel
    • , Matthias Schlesner
    • , Roland Eils
    • , David T. W. Jones
    • , Peter Lichter
    • , Lukas Chavez
    • , Marc Zapatka
    •  & Stefan M. Pfister
  • Article |

    The high-resolution structure of the entire eukaryotic oligosaccharyltransferase complex is determined, revealing the role of membrane lipids in mediating inter-subunit interactions, and the mechanism by which the complex enables protein N-glycosylation.

    • Lin Bai
    • , Tong Wang
    • , Gongpu Zhao
    • , Amanda Kovach
    •  & Huilin Li

Letter

  • Letter |

    Fourteen stars from stellar overdensities above and below the Galactic disk have the same elemental abundances as disk stars, suggesting that these stars originated in the disk, perhaps being removed during interaction with passing dwarf galaxies.

    • Maria Bergemann
    • , Branimir Sesar
    • , Judith G. Cohen
    • , Aldo M. Serenelli
    • , Allyson Sheffield
    • , Ting S. Li
    • , Luca Casagrande
    • , Kathryn V. Johnston
    • , Chervin F. P. Laporte
    • , Adrian M. Price-Whelan
    • , Ralph Schönrich
    •  & Andrew Gould
  • Letter |

    A two-dimensional phononic quadrupole topological insulator is demonstrated experimentally using mechanical metamaterials, which has both the one-dimensional edge states and the zero-dimensional corner states predicted by theory.

    • Marc Serra-Garcia
    • , Valerio Peri
    • , Roman Süsstrunk
    • , Osama R. Bilal
    • , Tom Larsen
    • , Luis Guillermo Villanueva
    •  & Sebastian D. Huber
  • Letter |

    High-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy at the scale of single cells is achieved by combining a magnetometer consisting of an ensemble of nitrogen–vacancy centres with a narrowband synchronized readout protocol.

    • David R. Glenn
    • , Dominik B. Bucher
    • , Junghyun Lee
    • , Mikhail D. Lukin
    • , Hongkun Park
    •  & Ronald L. Walsworth
  • Letter |

    Redox conditions and associated defect chemistry rather than water content, as previously thought, strongly influence the seismic properties of olivine, the main constituent mineral of Earth’s upper mantle.

    • C. J. Cline II
    • , U. H. Faul
    • , E. C. David
    • , A. J. Berry
    •  & I. Jackson
  • Letter |

    A derivation of Hamilton’s rule that considers explicit environmental stochasticity can predict when organisms should pay a cost to influence the variance in the reproductive success of their relatives, formalizing the link between bet-hedging and altruism.

    • Patrick Kennedy
    • , Andrew D. Higginson
    • , Andrew N. Radford
    •  & Seirian Sumner
  • Letter |

    Millions of Chinese smallholder farmers were persuaded to adopt enhanced management practices, which led to a greater yield, reduced nitrogen fertilizer use and improved environmental performance throughout China.

    • Zhenling Cui
    • , Hongyan Zhang
    • , Xinping Chen
    • , Chaochun Zhang
    • , Wenqi Ma
    • , Chengdong Huang
    • , Weifeng Zhang
    • , Guohua Mi
    • , Yuxin Miao
    • , Xiaolin Li
    • , Qiang Gao
    • , Jianchang Yang
    • , Zhaohui Wang
    • , Youliang Ye
    • , Shiwei Guo
    • , Jianwei Lu
    • , Jianliang Huang
    • , Shihua Lv
    • , Yixiang Sun
    • , Yuanying Liu
    • , Xianlong Peng
    • , Jun Ren
    • , Shiqing Li
    • , Xiping Deng
    • , Xiaojun Shi
    • , Qiang Zhang
    • , Zhiping Yang
    • , Li Tang
    • , Changzhou Wei
    • , Liangliang Jia
    • , Jiwang Zhang
    • , Mingrong He
    • , Yanan Tong
    • , Qiyuan Tang
    • , Xuhua Zhong
    • , Zhaohui Liu
    • , Ning Cao
    • , Changlin Kou
    • , Hao Ying
    • , Yulong Yin
    • , Xiaoqiang Jiao
    • , Qingsong Zhang
    • , Mingsheng Fan
    • , Rongfeng Jiang
    • , Fusuo Zhang
    •  & Zhengxia Dou
  • Letter | | Open Access

    Analysis of the genomes, exomes and transcriptomes of 1,699 childhood cancers identifies 142 driver genes.

    • Xiaotu Ma
    • , Yu Liu
    • , Yanling Liu
    • , Ludmil B. Alexandrov
    • , Michael N. Edmonson
    • , Charles Gawad
    • , Xin Zhou
    • , Yongjin Li
    • , Michael C. Rusch
    • , John Easton
    • , Robert Huether
    • , Veronica Gonzalez-Pena
    • , Mark R. Wilkinson
    • , Leandro C. Hermida
    • , Sean Davis
    • , Edgar Sioson
    • , Stanley Pounds
    • , Xueyuan Cao
    • , Rhonda E. Ries
    • , Zhaoming Wang
    • , Xiang Chen
    • , Li Dong
    • , Sharon J. Diskin
    • , Malcolm A. Smith
    • , Jaime M. Guidry Auvil
    • , Paul S. Meltzer
    • , Ching C. Lau
    • , Elizabeth J. Perlman
    • , John M. Maris
    • , Soheil Meshinchi
    • , Stephen P. Hunger
    • , Daniela S. Gerhard
    •  & Jinghui Zhang
  • Letter |

    Recruitment of young neurons to the hippocampus decreases rapidly during the first years of life, and neurogenesis does not continue, or is extremely rare, in the adult human brain.

    • Shawn F. Sorrells
    • , Mercedes F. Paredes
    • , Arantxa Cebrian-Silla
    • , Kadellyn Sandoval
    • , Dashi Qi
    • , Kevin W. Kelley
    • , David James
    • , Simone Mayer
    • , Julia Chang
    • , Kurtis I. Auguste
    • , Edward F. Chang
    • , Antonio J. Gutierrez
    • , Arnold R. Kriegstein
    • , Gary W. Mathern
    • , Michael C. Oldham
    • , Eric J. Huang
    • , Jose Manuel Garcia-Verdugo
    • , Zhengang Yang
    •  & Arturo Alvarez-Buylla
  • Letter |

    The C-type lectin receptor MelLec recognizes DHN-melanin in conidial spores of Aspergillus fumigatus and other DHN-melanized fungi, revealing an important role for this receptor in antifungal immunity in both mice and humans.

    • Mark H. T. Stappers
    • , Alexandra E. Clark
    • , Vishukumar Aimanianda
    • , Stefan Bidula
    • , Delyth M. Reid
    • , Patawee Asamaphan
    • , Sarah E. Hardison
    • , Ivy M. Dambuza
    • , Isabel Valsecchi
    • , Bernhard Kerscher
    • , Anthony Plato
    • , Carol A. Wallace
    • , Raif Yuecel
    • , Betty Hebecker
    • , Maria da Glória Teixeira Sousa
    • , Cristina Cunha
    • , Yan Liu
    • , Ten Feizi
    • , Axel A. Brakhage
    • , Kyung J. Kwon-Chung
    • , Neil A. R. Gow
    • , Matteo Zanda
    • , Monica Piras
    • , Chiara Zanato
    • , Martin Jaeger
    • , Mihai G. Netea
    • , Frank L. van de Veerdonk
    • , João F. Lacerda
    • , António Campos
    • , Agostinho Carvalho
    • , Janet A. Willment
    • , Jean-Paul Latgé
    •  & Gordon D. Brown
  • Letter |

    The EWS–FLI1 fusion protein, expressed in Ewing sarcoma, increases global transcription, causes accumulation of R loops and replication stress, and impairs BRCA1-mediated repair.

    • Aparna Gorthi
    • , July Carolina Romero
    • , Eva Loranc
    • , Lin Cao
    • , Liesl A. Lawrence
    • , Elicia Goodale
    • , Amanda Balboni Iniguez
    • , Xavier Bernard
    • , V. Pragathi Masamsetti
    • , Sydney Roston
    • , Elizabeth R. Lawlor
    • , Jeffrey A. Toretsky
    • , Kimberly Stegmaier
    • , Stephen L. Lessnick
    • , Yidong Chen
    •  & Alexander J. R. Bishop
  • Letter |

    Gonadal germline epigenetic reprogramming involves an interplay between DNA methylation, the polycomb complex and Tet1 in both DNA methylation dependent and independent roles, to ensure the activation of a specific subset of genes critical for progression of gametogenesis.

    • Peter W. S. Hill
    • , Harry G. Leitch
    • , Cristina E. Requena
    • , Zhiyi Sun
    • , Rachel Amouroux
    • , Monica Roman-Trufero
    • , Malgorzata Borkowska
    • , Jolyon Terragni
    • , Romualdas Vaisvila
    • , Sarah Linnett
    • , Hakan Bagci
    • , Gopuraja Dharmalingham
    • , Vanja Haberle
    • , Boris Lenhard
    • , Yu Zheng
    • , Sriharsa Pradhan
    •  & Petra Hajkova
  • Letter |

    X-ray and cryo-electron microscopy structures of the acid-sensing ion channel ASIC1a reveal the molecular mechanisms of channel gating and desensitization.

    • Nate Yoder
    • , Craig Yoshioka
    •  & Eric Gouaux

Corrigendum

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