Volume 555 Issue 7695, 8 March 2018

Volume 555 Issue 7695

This week's issue presents four papers from the Juno mission to Jupiter. Alberto Adriani and his colleagues report visible and infrared observations of Jupiter's polar regions, finding that distinct cyclones appear at both poles. The cover image, derived from Juno's JIRAM instrument, shows the central cyclone at the planet's north pole and the eight cyclones that encircle it. The colours represent radiant heat: the yellow (thinner) clouds are about −13 °C in brightness temperature, and the dark red (thickest) are around −83 °C. In a second paper, Luciano Iess and his colleagues used Doppler data to study Jupiter's gravitational field, revealing a north—south asymmetry arising from atmospheric flows. In the third paper, Yohai Kaspi and his colleagues analyse the uneven gravitational harmonics to show that atmospheric jet streams extend some 3,000 kilometres below cloud level, concluding that the mass of Jupiter's dynamical atmosphere is about 1% of Jupiter's total mass. And in the fourth paper, Tristan Guillot and his co-workers show that below the depth of 3,000 kilometres, Jupiter is rotating as a solid body. Cover image: NASA/SWRI/JPL/ASI/INAF/IAPS

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    News & Views

  • News & Views |

    NASA’s Juno spacecraft has made precise measurements of the gravitational field of Jupiter. The data reveal details of the structure and dynamics of the planet’s interior.

    • Jonathan Fortney
  • News & Views |

    The evolution of cooperation is a frequently debated topic. A study assessing scenarios in which people judge each other shows that a simple moral rule suffices to drive the evolution of cooperation.

    • Charles Efferson
    •  & Ernst Fehr
  • News & Views |

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    • David R. Sibley
    •  & Lei Shi
  • News & Views |

    A hybrid transistor device has been made in which a superconductor forms a seamless interface with a semiconductor. The study of such interfaces could open the way to innovative applications in electronics.

    • Yoshiharu Krockenberger
    •  & Yoshitaka Taniyasu
  • News & Views |

    A large-scale analysis of bird diversity and evolution on mountains around the globe explores the relationships between elevation, species richness and the rate of formation of new species.

    • Alexander Zizka
    •  & Alexandre Antonelli
  • Review

  • Review Article |

    Meta-analysis—the quantitative, scientific synthesis of research results—has been both revolutionary and controversial, with rapid advances and broad implementation resulting in substantial scientific advances, but not without pitfalls.

    • Jessica Gurevitch
    • , Julia Koricheva
    • , Shinichi Nakagawa
    •  & Gavin Stewart
  • Articles

  • Article |

    Group III/nitride semiconductors have been grown epitaxially on the superconductor niobium nitride, allowing the superconductor’s macroscopic quantum effects to be combined with the semiconductors’ electronic, photonic and piezoelectric properties.

    • Rusen Yan
    • , Guru Khalsa
    • , Suresh Vishwanath
    • , Yimo Han
    • , John Wright
    • , Sergei Rouvimov
    • , D. Scott Katzer
    • , Neeraj Nepal
    • , Brian P. Downey
    • , David A. Muller
    • , Huili G. Xing
    • , David J. Meyer
    •  & Debdeep Jena
  • Article |

    Genome-wide data from 400 individuals indicate that the initial spread of the Beaker archaeological complex between Iberia and central Europe was propelled by cultural diffusion, but that its spread into Britain involved a large-scale migration that permanently replaced about ninety per cent of the ancestry in the previously resident population.

    • Iñigo Olalde
    • , Selina Brace
    • , Morten E. Allentoft
    • , Ian Armit
    • , Kristian Kristiansen
    • , Thomas Booth
    • , Nadin Rohland
    • , Swapan Mallick
    • , Anna Szécsényi-Nagy
    • , Alissa Mittnik
    • , Eveline Altena
    • , Mark Lipson
    • , Iosif Lazaridis
    • , Thomas K. Harper
    • , Nick Patterson
    • , Nasreen Broomandkhoshbacht
    • , Yoan Diekmann
    • , Zuzana Faltyskova
    • , Daniel Fernandes
    • , Matthew Ferry
    • , Eadaoin Harney
    • , Peter de Knijff
    • , Megan Michel
    • , Jonas Oppenheimer
    • , Kristin Stewardson
    • , Alistair Barclay
    • , Kurt Werner Alt
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    • , Patricia Ríos
    • , Concepción Blasco
    • , Jorge Vega Miguel
    • , Roberto Menduiña García
    • , Azucena Avilés Fernández
    • , Eszter Bánffy
    • , Maria Bernabò-Brea
    • , David Billoin
    • , Clive Bonsall
    • , Laura Bonsall
    • , Tim Allen
    • , Lindsey Büster
    • , Sophie Carver
    • , Laura Castells Navarro
    • , Oliver E. Craig
    • , Gordon T. Cook
    • , Barry Cunliffe
    • , Anthony Denaire
    • , Kirsten Egging Dinwiddy
    • , Natasha Dodwell
    • , Michal Ernée
    • , Christopher Evans
    • , Milan Kuchařík
    • , Joan Francès Farré
    • , Chris Fowler
    • , Michiel Gazenbeek
    • , Rafael Garrido Pena
    • , María Haber-Uriarte
    • , Elżbieta Haduch
    • , Gill Hey
    • , Nick Jowett
    • , Timothy Knowles
    • , Ken Massy
    • , Saskia Pfrengle
    • , Philippe Lefranc
    • , Olivier Lemercier
    • , Arnaud Lefebvre
    • , César Heras Martínez
    • , Virginia Galera Olmo
    • , Ana Bastida Ramírez
    • , Joaquín Lomba Maurandi
    • , Tona Majó
    • , Jacqueline I. McKinley
    • , Kathleen McSweeney
    • , Balázs Gusztáv Mende
    • , Alessandra Modi
    • , Gabriella Kulcsár
    • , Viktória Kiss
    • , András Czene
    • , Róbert Patay
    • , Anna Endrődi
    • , Kitti Köhler
    • , Tamás Hajdu
    • , Tamás Szeniczey
    • , János Dani
    • , Zsolt Bernert
    • , Maya Hoole
    • , Olivia Cheronet
    • , Denise Keating
    • , Petr Velemínský
    • , Miroslav Dobeš
    • , Francesca Candilio
    • , Fraser Brown
    • , Raúl Flores Fernández
    • , Ana-Mercedes Herrero-Corral
    • , Sebastiano Tusa
    • , Emiliano Carnieri
    • , Luigi Lentini
    • , Antonella Valenti
    • , Alessandro Zanini
    • , Clive Waddington
    • , Germán Delibes
    • , Elisa Guerra-Doce
    • , Benjamin Neil
    • , Marcus Brittain
    • , Mike Luke
    • , Richard Mortimer
    • , Jocelyne Desideri
    • , Marie Besse
    • , Günter Brücken
    • , Mirosław Furmanek
    • , Agata Hałuszko
    • , Maksym Mackiewicz
    • , Artur Rapiński
    • , Stephany Leach
    • , Ignacio Soriano
    • , Katina T. Lillios
    • , João Luís Cardoso
    • , Michael Parker Pearson
    • , Piotr Włodarczak
    • , T. Douglas Price
    • , Pilar Prieto
    • , Pierre-Jérôme Rey
    • , Roberto Risch
    • , Manuel A. Rojo Guerra
    • , Aurore Schmitt
    • , Joël Serralongue
    • , Ana Maria Silva
    • , Václav Smrčka
    • , Luc Vergnaud
    • , João Zilhão
    • , David Caramelli
    • , Thomas Higham
    • , Mark G. Thomas
    • , Douglas J. Kennett
    • , Harry Fokkens
    • , Volker Heyd
    • , Alison Sheridan
    • , Karl-Göran Sjögren
    • , Philipp W. Stockhammer
    • , Johannes Krause
    • , Ron Pinhasi
    • , Wolfgang Haak
    • , Ian Barnes
    • , Carles Lalueza-Fox
    •  & David Reich
  • Article |

    Genome-wide ancient DNA data from 225 individuals who lived in southeastern Europe between 12000 and 500 bc reveals that the region acted as a genetic crossroads before and after the arrival of farming.

    • Iain Mathieson
    • , Songül Alpaslan-Roodenberg
    • , Cosimo Posth
    • , Anna Szécsényi-Nagy
    • , Nadin Rohland
    • , Swapan Mallick
    • , Iñigo Olalde
    • , Nasreen Broomandkhoshbacht
    • , Francesca Candilio
    • , Olivia Cheronet
    • , Daniel Fernandes
    • , Matthew Ferry
    • , Beatriz Gamarra
    • , Gloria González Fortes
    • , Wolfgang Haak
    • , Eadaoin Harney
    • , Eppie Jones
    • , Denise Keating
    • , Ben Krause-Kyora
    • , Isil Kucukkalipci
    • , Megan Michel
    • , Alissa Mittnik
    • , Kathrin Nägele
    • , Mario Novak
    • , Jonas Oppenheimer
    • , Nick Patterson
    • , Saskia Pfrengle
    • , Kendra Sirak
    • , Kristin Stewardson
    • , Stefania Vai
    • , Stefan Alexandrov
    • , Kurt W. Alt
    • , Radian Andreescu
    • , Dragana Antonović
    • , Abigail Ash
    • , Nadezhda Atanassova
    • , Krum Bacvarov
    • , Mende Balázs Gusztáv
    • , Hervé Bocherens
    • , Michael Bolus
    • , Adina Boroneanţ
    • , Yavor Boyadzhiev
    • , Alicja Budnik
    • , Josip Burmaz
    • , Stefan Chohadzhiev
    • , Nicholas J. Conard
    • , Richard Cottiaux
    • , Maja Čuka
    • , Christophe Cupillard
    • , Dorothée G. Drucker
    • , Nedko Elenski
    • , Michael Francken
    • , Borislava Galabova
    • , Georgi Ganetsovski
    • , Bernard Gély
    • , Tamás Hajdu
    • , Veneta Handzhyiska
    • , Katerina Harvati
    • , Thomas Higham
    • , Stanislav Iliev
    • , Ivor Janković
    • , Ivor Karavanić
    • , Douglas J. Kennett
    • , Darko Komšo
    • , Alexandra Kozak
    • , Damian Labuda
    • , Martina Lari
    • , Catalin Lazar
    • , Maleen Leppek
    • , Krassimir Leshtakov
    • , Domenico Lo Vetro
    • , Dženi Los
    • , Ivaylo Lozanov
    • , Maria Malina
    • , Fabio Martini
    • , Kath McSweeney
    • , Harald Meller
    • , Marko Menđušić
    • , Pavel Mirea
    • , Vyacheslav Moiseyev
    • , Vanya Petrova
    • , T. Douglas Price
    • , Angela Simalcsik
    • , Luca Sineo
    • , Mario Šlaus
    • , Vladimir Slavchev
    • , Petar Stanev
    • , Andrej Starović
    • , Tamás Szeniczey
    • , Sahra Talamo
    • , Maria Teschler-Nicola
    • , Corinne Thevenet
    • , Ivan Valchev
    • , Frédérique Valentin
    • , Sergey Vasilyev
    • , Fanica Veljanovska
    • , Svetlana Venelinova
    • , Elizaveta Veselovskaya
    • , Bence Viola
    • , Cristian Virag
    • , Joško Zaninović
    • , Steve Zäuner
    • , Philipp W. Stockhammer
    • , Giulio Catalano
    • , Raiko Krauß
    • , David Caramelli
    • , Gunita Zariņa
    • , Bisserka Gaydarska
    • , Malcolm Lillie
    • , Alexey G. Nikitin
    • , Inna Potekhina
    • , Anastasia Papathanasiou
    • , Dušan Borić
    • , Clive Bonsall
    • , Johannes Krause
    • , Ron Pinhasi
    •  & David Reich
  • Article |

    Thirst is regulated by hierarchical neural circuits in the lamina terminalis, and these integrate the instinctive need for water with consequent drinking behaviour to maintain internal water homeostasis.

    • Vineet Augustine
    • , Sertan Kutal Gokce
    • , Sangjun Lee
    • , Bo Wang
    • , Thomas J. Davidson
    • , Frank Reimann
    • , Fiona Gribble
    • , Karl Deisseroth
    • , Carlos Lois
    •  & Yuki Oka
  • Article |

    Statistical analyses of a metagenomics-sequenced human cohort identify a relatively minor role for genetics in determining microbiome composition and show that several human phenotypes are as strongly associated with the gut microbiome as with host genetics.

    • Daphna Rothschild
    • , Omer Weissbrod
    • , Elad Barkan
    • , Alexander Kurilshikov
    • , Tal Korem
    • , David Zeevi
    • , Paul I. Costea
    • , Anastasia Godneva
    • , Iris N. Kalka
    • , Noam Bar
    • , Smadar Shilo
    • , Dar Lador
    • , Arnau Vich Vila
    • , Niv Zmora
    • , Meirav Pevsner-Fischer
    • , David Israeli
    • , Noa Kosower
    • , Gal Malka
    • , Bat Chen Wolf
    • , Tali Avnit-Sagi
    • , Maya Lotan-Pompan
    • , Adina Weinberger
    • , Zamir Halpern
    • , Shai Carmi
    • , Jingyuan Fu
    • , Cisca Wijmenga
    • , Alexandra Zhernakova
    • , Eran Elinav
    •  & Eran Segal

    Collection:

  • Letters

  • Letter |

    Visible and infrared images obtained from above each pole of Jupiter by the Juno spacecraft reveal polygonal patterns of large cyclones; it is unknown how these cyclones evolved, or how they persist without merging.

    • A. Adriani
    • , A. Mura
    • , G. Orton
    • , C. Hansen
    • , F. Altieri
    • , M. L. Moriconi
    • , J. Rogers
    • , G. Eichstädt
    • , T. Momary
    • , A. P. Ingersoll
    • , G. Filacchione
    • , G. Sindoni
    • , F. Tabataba-Vakili
    • , B. M. Dinelli
    • , F. Fabiano
    • , S. J. Bolton
    • , J. E. P. Connerney
    • , S. K. Atreya
    • , J. I. Lunine
    • , F. Tosi
    • , A. Migliorini
    • , D. Grassi
    • , G. Piccioni
    • , R. Noschese
    • , A. Cicchetti
    • , C. Plainaki
    • , A. Olivieri
    • , M. E. O’Neill
    • , D. Turrini
    • , S. Stefani
    • , R. Sordini
    •  & M. Amoroso
  • Letter |

    Precise Doppler tracking of the Juno spacecraft in its polar orbit around Jupiter is used to determine the planet’s gravity harmonics, showing north–south asymmetry caused by atmospheric and interior flows.

    • L. Iess
    • , W. M. Folkner
    • , D. Durante
    • , M. Parisi
    • , Y. Kaspi
    • , E. Galanti
    • , T. Guillot
    • , W. B. Hubbard
    • , D. J. Stevenson
    • , J. D. Anderson
    • , D. R. Buccino
    • , L. Gomez Casajus
    • , A. Milani
    • , R. Park
    • , P. Racioppa
    • , D. Serra
    • , P. Tortora
    • , M. Zannoni
    • , H. Cao
    • , R. Helled
    • , J. I. Lunine
    • , Y. Miguel
    • , B. Militzer
    • , S. Wahl
    • , J. E. P. Connerney
    • , S. M. Levin
    •  & S. J. Bolton
  • Letter |

    The determination of Jupiter’s odd gravitational harmonics by the Juno spacecraft reveals that the observed jet streams extend to about three thousand kilometres below the cloud tops.

    • Y. Kaspi
    • , E. Galanti
    • , W. B. Hubbard
    • , D. J. Stevenson
    • , S. J. Bolton
    • , L. Iess
    • , T. Guillot
    • , J. Bloxham
    • , J. E. P. Connerney
    • , H. Cao
    • , D. Durante
    • , W. M. Folkner
    • , R. Helled
    • , A. P. Ingersoll
    • , S. M. Levin
    • , J. I. Lunine
    • , Y. Miguel
    • , B. Militzer
    • , M. Parisi
    •  & S. M. Wahl
  • Letter |

    The determination of Jupiter’s even gravitational moments by the Juno spacecraft reveals that more than three thousand kilometres below the cloud tops, differential rotation is suppressed and the gas giant’s interior rotates as a solid body.

    • T. Guillot
    • , Y. Miguel
    • , B. Militzer
    • , W. B. Hubbard
    • , Y. Kaspi
    • , E. Galanti
    • , H. Cao
    • , R. Helled
    • , S. M. Wahl
    • , L. Iess
    • , W. M. Folkner
    • , D. J. Stevenson
    • , J. I. Lunine
    • , D. R. Reese
    • , A. Biekman
    • , M. Parisi
    • , D. Durante
    • , J. E. P. Connerney
    • , S. M. Levin
    •  & S. J. Bolton
  • Letter |

    Superlattices consisting of alternating monolayer atomic crystals and molecular layers allow access to stable phosphorene monolayers with competitive transistor performance and to bulk monolayer materials with tunable optoelectronic properties.

    • Chen Wang
    • , Qiyuan He
    • , Udayabagya Halim
    • , Yuanyue Liu
    • , Enbo Zhu
    • , Zhaoyang Lin
    • , Hai Xiao
    • , Xidong Duan
    • , Ziying Feng
    • , Rui Cheng
    • , Nathan O. Weiss
    • , Guojun Ye
    • , Yun-Chiao Huang
    • , Hao Wu
    • , Hung-Chieh Cheng
    • , Imran Shakir
    • , Lei Liao
    • , Xianhui Chen
    • , William A. Goddard III
    • , Yu Huang
    •  & Xiangfeng Duan
  • Letter |

    The composition of natural calcium silicate perovskite, the fourth most abundant mineral in the Earth, found within a diamond indicates an origin from oceanic crust subducted deeper than 700 kilometres into the Earth’s mantle.

    • F. Nestola
    • , N. Korolev
    • , M. Kopylova
    • , N. Rotiroti
    • , D. G. Pearson
    • , M. G. Pamato
    • , M. Alvaro
    • , L. Peruzzo
    • , J. J. Gurney
    • , A. E. Moore
    •  & J. Davidson
  • Letter |

    An evolutionarily conserved alveolar epithelial progenitor lineage that derives from alveolar type 2 cells is responsive to Wnt signalling and acts as a major facultative progenitor in regenerating the distal lung.

    • William J. Zacharias
    • , David B. Frank
    • , Jarod A. Zepp
    • , Michael P. Morley
    • , Farrah A. Alkhaleel
    • , Jun Kong
    • , Su Zhou
    • , Edward Cantu
    •  & Edward E. Morrisey
  • Letter |

    The SMAD2 and SMAD3 protein interactome links TGFβ signalling to diverse effectors including m6A methyltransferase, which has a role in regulating differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells.

    • Alessandro Bertero
    • , Stephanie Brown
    • , Pedro Madrigal
    • , Anna Osnato
    • , Daniel Ortmann
    • , Loukia Yiangou
    • , Juned Kadiwala
    • , Nina C. Hubner
    • , Igor Ruiz de los Mozos
    • , Christoph Sadée
    • , An-Sofie Lenaerts
    • , Shota Nakanoh
    • , Rodrigo Grandy
    • , Edward Farnell
    • , Jernej Ule
    • , Hendrik G. Stunnenberg
    • , Sasha Mendjan
    •  & Ludovic Vallier
  • Letter |

    The biogenesis of piRNAs in the silkworm Bombyx is simpler than in Drosophila, with the exonucleases Trim and Nbr having no major role, and the endonuclease Zuc acting at the 3′ rather than the 5′ end.

    • Kazumichi M. Nishida
    • , Kazuhiro Sakakibara
    • , Yuka W. Iwasaki
    • , Hiromi Yamada
    • , Ryo Murakami
    • , Yukiko Murota
    • , Takeshi Kawamura
    • , Tatsuhiko Kodama
    • , Haruhiko Siomi
    •  & Mikiko C. Siomi
  • Letter |

    In vitro experiments, using purified proteins and an assay that detects DNA unwinding, reveal the mechanism of activation of eukaryotic DNA replication.

    • Max E. Douglas
    • , Ferdos Abid Ali
    • , Alessandro Costa
    •  & John F. X. Diffley

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