Volume 554 Issue 7693, 22 February 2018

Volume 554 Issue 7693

This special issue of Nature examines one of the most misunderstood aspects of human life: adolescence. In two News Features, we explore the neuroscience of risk-taking and rebellion, and look at how the boundaries of adolescence are widening. In a Comment article, developmental psychologist Candice Odgers tackles the relationship between young people and digital technology. And a second Comment piece sees social scientists Jo Boyden and Robert Blum stress the importance of understanding the daily lives of adolescents in low- and middle-income countries. The Feinberg hypothesis, which posits that abnormal pruning of neural connections in adolescence leads to schizophrenia, is reappraised in a News & Views. And a Careers Feature looks at scientists who give teenagers jobs in the lab. Three reviews explore some paradoxes of adolescence. Paediatrician Ronald Dahl and his colleagues review the evidence for adolescence as a physical, cognitive and socio-emotional growth spurt. Epidemiologist George Patton and his colleagues explore how factors that harm adolescent health can affect the next generation. And anthropologists Carol Worthman and Kathy Trang analyse historical changes in the timing of puberty, and shifting cultural definitions of and influences on adolescence. These pieces are part of a collection on adolescence from nine journals in the Nature family and its sister publication, Scientific American. Cover image: Eric Nyquist

This Week

News In Focus

Comment

Careers

Specials

    Technology Feature

  • Technology Feature |

    A popular artificial-intelligence method provides a powerful tool for surveying and classifying biological data. But for the uninitiated, the technology poses significant difficulties.

    • Sarah Webb

    Collection:

Research

    Brief Communications Arising

  • Brief Communications Arising |

    • Natasja van Gestel
    • , Zheng Shi
    • , Kees Jan van Groenigen
    • , Craig W. Osenberg
    • , Louise C. Andresen
    • , Jeffrey S. Dukes
    • , Mark J. Hovenden
    • , Yiqi Luo
    • , Anders Michelsen
    • , Elise Pendall
    • , Peter B. Reich
    • , Edward A. G. Schuur
    •  & Bruce A. Hungate
  • Brief Communications Arising |

    • T. W. Crowther
    • , M. B. Machmuller
    • , J. C. Carey
    • , S. D. Allison
    • , J. M. Blair
    • , S. D. Bridgham
    • , A. J. Burton
    • , F. A. Dijkstra
    • , B. Elberling
    • , M. Estiarte
    • , K. S. Larsen
    • , H. Laudon
    • , M. Lupascu
    • , S. Marhan
    • , J. Mohan
    • , S. Niu
    • , J. J. Peñuelas
    • , I. K. Schmidt
    • , P. H. Templer
    • , G. Kröel-Dulay
    • , S. Frey
    •  & M. A. Bradford
  • News & Views

  • News & Views |

    The idea that disrupted pruning of neuronal connections in the brain during adolescence is a cause of schizophrenia was proposed in 1983. This proved prescient, as subsequent imaging, genetic and molecular research has shown.

    • Matthew B. Johnson
    •  & Beth Stevens

    Collection:

  • News & Views |

    Crystals have been made that undergo reactions when compressed. Computational simulations of these processes provide much-needed atomic-level insight into the mechanisms of mechanically induced reactions.

    • Stuart L. James
  • News & Views |

    Piezo proteins allow cells to sense forces by letting ions pass through the cell membrane in response to mechanical stimuli. Three structures of a Piezo protein shed light on how this crucial process works.

    • Yuh Nung Jan
    •  & Lily Yeh Jan
  • News & Views |

    The mouse pancreas adopts a pre-inflammatory state in response to a chemical injury or the loss of one copy of the gene Nr5a2. This state might predispose mice, and possibly humans, to pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer.

    • L. Charles Murtaugh
    •  & Raymond J. MacDonald
  • News & Views |

    Electronic devices can currently emulate only basic functions of biological neurons. Devices called memtransistors could overcome this limitation and give rise to improvements in artificial-intelligence systems.

    • Da Li
    •  & Xiaogan Liang
  • Perspectives

  • Analysis

  • Analysis | | open

    Investing in adolescents as the parents of the next generation is important for the wellbeing of current and future generations.

    • George C. Patton
    • , Craig A. Olsson
    • , Vegard Skirbekk
    • , Richard Saffery
    • , Mary E. Wlodek
    • , Peter S. Azzopardi
    • , Marcin Stonawski
    • , Bruce Rasmussen
    • , Elizabeth Spry
    • , Kate Francis
    • , Zulfiqar A. Bhutta
    • , Nicholas J. Kassebaum
    • , Ali H. Mokdad
    • , Christopher J. L. Murray
    • , Andrew M. Prentice
    • , Nicola Reavley
    • , Peter Sheehan
    • , Kim Sweeny
    • , Russell M. Viner
    •  & Susan M. Sawyer

    Collection:

  • Articles

  • Article |

    Single-cell transcriptomic analysis of the murine blood–brain barrier provides molecular definitions of the main vascular cell types, classifies perivascular cell types and sheds light on the organization of the arteriovenous axis.

    • Michael Vanlandewijck
    • , Liqun He
    • , Maarja Andaloussi Mäe
    • , Johanna Andrae
    • , Koji Ando
    • , Francesca Del Gaudio
    • , Khayrun Nahar
    • , Thibaud Lebouvier
    • , Bàrbara Laviña
    • , Leonor Gouveia
    • , Ying Sun
    • , Elisabeth Raschperger
    • , Markus Räsänen
    • , Yvette Zarb
    • , Naoki Mochizuki
    • , Annika Keller
    • , Urban Lendahl
    •  & Christer Betsholtz
  • Article |

    The cryo-electron microscopy structure of full-length mouse Piezo1 reveals six Piezo repeats, and 26 transmembrane helices per protomer, and shows that a kinked helical beam and anchor domain link the Piezo repeats to the pore and control gating allosterically.

    • Kei Saotome
    • , Swetha E. Murthy
    • , Jennifer M. Kefauver
    • , Tess Whitwam
    • , Ardem Patapoutian
    •  & Andrew B. Ward
  • Article |

    The electron cryo-microscopy structure of full-length mouse Piezo1 reveals unique topological features such as the repetitive transmembrane helical units that constitute the highly curved transmembrane region, and identifies regions and single residues that are crucial for the mechanical activation of the channel.

    • Qiancheng Zhao
    • , Heng Zhou
    • , Shaopeng Chi
    • , Yanfeng Wang
    • , Jianhua Wang
    • , Jie Geng
    • , Kun Wu
    • , Wenhao Liu
    • , Tingxin Zhang
    • , Meng-Qiu Dong
    • , Jiawei Wang
    • , Xueming Li
    •  & Bailong Xiao
  • Letters

  • Letter |

    The halo of gas around a galaxy at redshift 1 is clumpy and anisotropic, with little variation in gas velocity, suggesting that it consists of entrained recycled material.

    • Sebastian Lopez
    • , Nicolas Tejos
    • , Cédric Ledoux
    • , L. Felipe Barrientos
    • , Keren Sharon
    • , Jane R. Rigby
    • , Michael D. Gladders
    • , Matthew B. Bayliss
    •  & Ismael Pessa
  • Letter |

    The discovery of a newly born type IIb supernova reveals a rapid brightening at optical wavelengths that corresponds to the shock-breakout phase of the explosion.

    • M. C. Bersten
    • , G. Folatelli
    • , F. García
    • , S. D. Van Dyk
    • , O. G. Benvenuto
    • , M. Orellana
    • , V. Buso
    • , J. L. Sánchez
    • , M. Tanaka
    • , K. Maeda
    • , A. V. Filippenko
    • , W. Zheng
    • , T. G. Brink
    • , S. B. Cenko
    • , T. de Jaeger
    • , S. Kumar
    • , T. J. Moriya
    • , K. Nomoto
    • , D. A. Perley
    • , I. Shivvers
    •  & N. Smith
  • Letter |

    Polycrystalline monolayer molybdenum disulfide is used to fabricate a multi-terminal device combining a memristor and a transistor, which can mimic biological neurons with multiple synapses for neuromorphic computing applications.

    • Vinod K. Sangwan
    • , Hong-Sub Lee
    • , Hadallia Bergeron
    • , Itamar Balla
    • , Megan E. Beck
    • , Kan-Sheng Chen
    •  & Mark C. Hersam
  • Letter |

    ‘Molecular anvil’ molecules consisting of a compressible mechanophore and incompressible ligands react under hydrostatic pressure to produce elemental metal via an unexplored mechanism.

    • Hao Yan
    • , Fan Yang
    • , Ding Pan
    • , Yu Lin
    • , J. Nathan Hohman
    • , Diego Solis-Ibarra
    • , Fei Hua Li
    • , Jeremy E. P. Dahl
    • , Robert M. K. Carlson
    • , Boryslav A. Tkachenko
    • , Andrey A. Fokin
    • , Peter R. Schreiner
    • , Giulia Galli
    • , Wendy L. Mao
    • , Zhi-Xun Shen
    •  & Nicholas A. Melosh
  • Letter |

    An approach for the direct electrophilic C–H fluorination of arenes is reported, using a palladium catalyst and mild fluorinating reagents.

    • Kumiko Yamamoto
    • , Jiakun Li
    • , Jeffrey A. O. Garber
    • , Julian D. Rolfes
    • , Gregory B. Boursalian
    • , Jannik C. Borghs
    • , Christophe Genicot
    • , Jérôme Jacq
    • , Maurice van Gastel
    • , Frank Neese
    •  & Tobias Ritter
  • Letter |

    There has been about a forty per cent reduction in the transport of carbonate ions to the deep North Atlantic Ocean since preindustrial times, severely endangering cold-water corals.

    • Fiz F. Perez
    • , Marcos Fontela
    • , Maribel I. García-Ibáñez
    • , Herlé Mercier
    • , Anton Velo
    • , Pascale Lherminier
    • , Patricia Zunino
    • , Mercedes de la Paz
    • , Fernando Alonso-Pérez
    • , Elisa F. Guallart
    •  & Xose A. Padin

    Collection:

  • Letter |

    Satellite data and modelling reveal that tropical forest fragments have similar size distributions across continents, and that forest fragmentation is close to a critical point, beyond which fragment numbers will strongly increase.

    • Franziska Taubert
    • , Rico Fischer
    • , Jürgen Groeneveld
    • , Sebastian Lehmann
    • , Michael S. Müller
    • , Edna Rödig
    • , Thorsten Wiegand
    •  & Andreas Huth
  • Letter |

    Single-cell fluorescence microscopy reveals that cytokinesis occurs in two stages in Staphylococcus aureus, an initial slow phase followed by a faster phase after MurJ protein recruitment to the midcell triggers peptidoglycan synthesis.

    • João M. Monteiro
    • , Ana R. Pereira
    • , Nathalie T. Reichmann
    • , Bruno M. Saraiva
    • , Pedro B. Fernandes
    • , Helena Veiga
    • , Andreia C. Tavares
    • , Margarida Santos
    • , Maria T. Ferreira
    • , Vânia Macário
    • , Michael S. VanNieuwenhze
    • , Sérgio R. Filipe
    •  & Mariana G. Pinho
  • Letter |

    In mouse pancreas cells with only one copy of the Nr5a2 gene, the orphan nuclear receptor NR5A2 undergoes a marked transcriptional shift from differentiation-specific to inflammatory genes, which results in an epithelial-cell-autonomous basal pre-inflammatory state.

    • Isidoro Cobo
    • , Paola Martinelli
    • , Marta Flández
    • , Latifa Bakiri
    • , Mingfeng Zhang
    • , Enrique Carrillo-de-Santa-Pau
    • , Jinping Jia
    • , Víctor J. Sánchez-Arévalo Lobo
    • , Diego Megías
    • , Irene Felipe
    • , Natalia del Pozo
    • , Irene Millán
    • , Liv Thommesen
    • , Torunn Bruland
    • , Sara H. Olson
    • , Jill Smith
    • , Kristina Schoonjans
    • , William R. Bamlet
    • , Gloria M. Petersen
    • , Núria Malats
    • , Laufey T. Amundadottir
    • , Erwin F. Wagner
    •  & Francisco X. Real
  • Letter |

    A combination of TGFβ inhibition and checkpoint-inhibition therapy provokes a potent cytotoxic response against metastatic tumours derived from colorectal cancers in mice.

    • Daniele V. F. Tauriello
    • , Sergio Palomo-Ponce
    • , Diana Stork
    • , Antonio Berenguer-Llergo
    • , Jordi Badia-Ramentol
    • , Mar Iglesias
    • , Marta Sevillano
    • , Sales Ibiza
    • , Adrià Cañellas
    • , Xavier Hernando-Momblona
    • , Daniel Byrom
    • , Joan A. Matarin
    • , Alexandre Calon
    • , Elisa I. Rivas
    • , Angel R. Nebreda
    • , Antoni Riera
    • , Camille Stephan-Otto Attolini
    •  & Eduard Batlle
  • Letter |

    In humans, TGFβ signalling is associated with lack of response to immunotherapy in immune-excluded tumours; in mouse models of this immune phenotype, robust tumour infiltration by T cells and tumour regression are observed only when checkpoint inhibition is combined with inhibition of TGFβ signalling.

    • Sanjeev Mariathasan
    • , Shannon J. Turley
    • , Dorothee Nickles
    • , Alessandra Castiglioni
    • , Kobe Yuen
    • , Yulei Wang
    • , Edward E. Kadel III
    • , Hartmut Koeppen
    • , Jillian L. Astarita
    • , Rafael Cubas
    • , Suchit Jhunjhunwala
    • , Romain Banchereau
    • , Yagai Yang
    • , Yinghui Guan
    • , Cecile Chalouni
    • , James Ziai
    • , Yasin Şenbabaoğlu
    • , Stephen Santoro
    • , Daniel Sheinson
    • , Jeffrey Hung
    • , Jennifer M. Giltnane
    • , Andrew A. Pierce
    • , Kathryn Mesh
    • , Steve Lianoglou
    • , Johannes Riegler
    • , Richard A. D. Carano
    • , Pontus Eriksson
    • , Mattias Höglund
    • , Loan Somarriba
    • , Daniel L. Halligan
    • , Michiel S. van der Heijden
    • , Yohann Loriot
    • , Jonathan E. Rosenberg
    • , Lawrence Fong
    • , Ira Mellman
    • , Daniel S. Chen
    • , Marjorie Green
    • , Christina Derleth
    • , Gregg D. Fine
    • , Priti S. Hegde
    • , Richard Bourgon
    •  & Thomas Powles
  • Letter |

    KSR–MEK complexes allosterically activate BRAF through the action of N-terminal regulatory region and kinase domain contacts, thus challenging the accepted role of KSR as a scaffold for MEK recruitment to RAF.

    • Hugo Lavoie
    • , Malha Sahmi
    • , Pierre Maisonneuve
    • , Sara A. Marullo
    • , Neroshan Thevakumaran
    • , Ting Jin
    • , Igor Kurinov
    • , Frank Sicheri
    •  & Marc Therrien

Corrections

    Corrections

  • Corrigenda

  • Corrigendum |

    • Amaia Zabala-Letona
    • , Amaia Arruabarrena-Aristorena
    • , Natalia Martín-Martín
    • , Sonia Fernandez-Ruiz
    • , James D. Sutherland
    • , Michelle Clasquin
    • , Julen Tomas-Cortazar
    • , Jose Jimenez
    • , Ines Torres
    • , Phong Quang
    • , Pilar Ximenez-Embun
    • , Ruzica Bago
    • , Aitziber Ugalde-Olano
    • , Ana Loizaga-Iriarte
    • , Isabel Lacasa-Viscasillas
    • , Miguel Unda
    • , Verónica Torrano
    • , Diana Cabrera
    • , Sebastiaan M. van Liempd
    • , Ylenia Cendon
    • , Elena Castro
    • , Stuart Murray
    • , Ajinkya Revandkar
    • , Andrea Alimonti
    • , Yinan Zhang
    • , Amelia Barnett
    • , Gina Lein
    • , David Pirman
    • , Ana R. Cortazar
    • , Leire Arreal
    • , Ludmila Prudkin
    • , Ianire Astobiza
    • , Lorea Valcarcel-Jimenez
    • , Patricia Zuñiga-García
    • , Itziar Fernandez-Dominguez
    • , Marco Piva
    • , Alfredo Caro-Maldonado
    • , Pilar Sánchez-Mosquera
    • , Mireia Castillo-Martín
    • , Violeta Serra
    • , Naiara Beraza
    • , Antonio Gentilella
    • , George Thomas
    • , Mikel Azkargorta
    • , Felix Elortza
    • , Rosa Farràs
    • , David Olmos
    • , Alejo Efeyan
    • , Juan Anguita
    • , Javier Muñoz
    • , Juan M. Falcón-Pérez
    • , Rosa Barrio
    • , Teresa Macarulla
    • , Jose M. Mato
    • , Maria L. Martinez-Chantar
    • , Carlos Cordon-Cardo
    • , Ana M. Aransay
    • , Kevin Marks
    • , José Baselga
    • , Josep Tabernero
    • , Paolo Nuciforo
    • , Brendan D. Manning
    • , Katya Marjon
    •  & Arkaitz Carracedo
  • Corrigendum |

    • Fumiji Saito
    • , Kouyuki Hirayasu
    • , Takeshi Satoh
    • , Christian W. Wang
    • , John Lusingu
    • , Takao Arimori
    • , Kyoko Shida
    • , Nirianne Marie Q. Palacpac
    • , Sawako Itagaki
    • , Shiroh Iwanaga
    • , Eizo Takashima
    • , Takafumi Tsuboi
    • , Masako Kohyama
    • , Tadahiro Suenaga
    • , Marco Colonna
    • , Junichi Takagi
    • , Thomas Lavstsen
    • , Toshihiro Horii
    •  & Hisashi Arase
  • Erratum

Newsletter Get the most important science stories of the day, free in your inbox. Sign up for Nature Briefing