Volume 550 Issue 7674, 5 October 2017

Volume 550 Issue 7674

The cover is a coloured scanning electron micrograph of various oral bacteria. The oral cavity was among six key body sites that formed a major focus in the work to expand the Human Microbiome Project reported on in this issue. Published in 2012, the Human Microbiome Project sampled 18 different body sites to provide a broad overview of the human microbiome in healthy individuals. Curtis Huttenhower and his colleagues have now extended this work to present 1,631 new metagenomes and multiple time points in 265 individuals, looking in particular at six sites, including the nostrils, mouth and gut. Using a combination of strain profiling, species-level metagenomic functional profiling and longitudinal analyses, the study provides deeper insights into human microbial communities, providing an important resource to further our understanding about what constitutes a ‘healthy’ microbiota. Image courtesy: SPL/Getty

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  • News & Views |

    The discovery that the host defence protein ZAP specifically targets viral RNAs that are rich in a particular pair of adjacent bases — cytosine followed by guanine — sheds light on the evolution of viral RNA genomes. See Letter p.124

    • Stephen P. Goff
  • News & Views |

    The X-ray sensitivity of radiology instruments is limited by the materials used in their detectors. A material from the perovskite family of semiconductors could allow lower doses of X-rays to be used for medical imaging. See Letter p.87

    • John A. Rowlands
  • News & Views |

    An international movement is calling for at least half of the Earth to be allocated for conservation. A global study now reveals that, in many ecoregions, enough habitat exists to reach this goal, and ideas are proposed for the next steps needed.

    • James E. M. Watson
    •  & Oscar Venter
  • News & Views |

    A supercomputer-powered design technique enables the discovery of efficient mechanical structures that have an unprecedented level of detail. The findings provide insights into both physical and biological structures. See Letter p.84

    • Matthijs Langelaar
  • News & Views |

    There is a species-diversity gradient on Earth, with the greatest diversity found near the Equator. Analysis of forest data now reveals a mechanism aiding species coexistence in the tropics that might underlie this phenomenon. See Letter p.105

    • Gary G. Mittelbach
  • Review

  • Review Article |

    A review of the recent developments in reprogramming the genetic code of cells and organisms to include non-canonical amino acids in precisely engineered proteins.

    • Jason W. Chin
  • Articles

  • Article | | open

    Updates from the Human Microbiome Project analyse the largest known body-wide metagenomic profile of human microbiome personalization.

    • Jason Lloyd-Price
    • , Anup Mahurkar
    • , Gholamali Rahnavard
    • , Jonathan Crabtree
    • , Joshua Orvis
    • , A. Brantley Hall
    • , Arthur Brady
    • , Heather H. Creasy
    • , Carrie McCracken
    • , Michelle G. Giglio
    • , Daniel McDonald
    • , Eric A. Franzosa
    • , Rob Knight
    • , Owen White
    •  & Curtis Huttenhower
  • Article |

    Genome editing in human zygotes shows that OCT4 is required for normal development at an earlier stage in humans than in mice.

    • Norah M. E. Fogarty
    • , Afshan McCarthy
    • , Kirsten E. Snijders
    • , Benjamin E. Powell
    • , Nada Kubikova
    • , Paul Blakeley
    • , Rebecca Lea
    • , Kay Elder
    • , Sissy E. Wamaitha
    • , Daesik Kim
    • , Valdone Maciulyte
    • , Jens Kleinjung
    • , Jin-Soo Kim
    • , Dagan Wells
    • , Ludovic Vallier
    • , Alessandro Bertero
    • , James M. A. Turner
    •  & Kathy K. Niakan
  • Article |

    A massively parallel computational and experimental approach for de novo designing and screening small hyperstable proteins targeting influenza haemagglutinin and botulinum neurotoxin B identifies new therapeutic candidates more robust than traditional antibody therapies.

    • Aaron Chevalier
    • , Daniel-Adriano Silva
    • , Gabriel J. Rocklin
    • , Derrick R. Hicks
    • , Renan Vergara
    • , Patience Murapa
    • , Steffen M. Bernard
    • , Lu Zhang
    • , Kwok-Ho Lam
    • , Guorui Yao
    • , Christopher D. Bahl
    • , Shin-Ichiro Miyashita
    • , Inna Goreshnik
    • , James T. Fuller
    • , Merika T. Koday
    • , Cody M. Jenkins
    • , Tom Colvin
    • , Lauren Carter
    • , Alan Bohn
    • , Cassie M. Bryan
    • , D. Alejandro Fernández-Velasco
    • , Lance Stewart
    • , Min Dong
    • , Xuhui Huang
    • , Rongsheng Jin
    • , Ian A. Wilson
    • , Deborah H. Fuller
    •  & David Baker
  • Letters

  • Letter |

    The detection and simulation of a type Ia supernova with an early, red flash suggests that it formed through detonation of the helium shell of a white dwarf, rather than by collision of the ejecta with a companion star or by merging with another white dwarf.

    • Ji-an Jiang
    • , Mamoru Doi
    • , Keiichi Maeda
    • , Toshikazu Shigeyama
    • , Ken’ichi Nomoto
    • , Naoki Yasuda
    • , Saurabh W. Jha
    • , Masaomi Tanaka
    • , Tomoki Morokuma
    • , Nozomu Tominaga
    • , Željko Ivezić
    • , Pilar Ruiz-Lapuente
    • , Maximilian D. Stritzinger
    • , Paolo A. Mazzali
    • , Christopher Ashall
    • , Jeremy Mould
    • , Dietrich Baade
    • , Nao Suzuki
    • , Andrew J. Connolly
    • , Ferdinando Patat
    • , Lifan Wang
    • , Peter Yoachim
    • , David Jones
    • , Hisanori Furusawa
    •  & Satoshi Miyazaki
  • Letter |

    Giga-voxel-resolution computational morphogenesis is used to optimize the internal structure of a full-scale aeroplane wing, yielding light-weight designs with more similarities to animal bone structures than to current aeroplane wing designs.

    • Niels Aage
    • , Erik Andreassen
    • , Boyan S. Lazarov
    •  & Ole Sigmund
  • Letter |

    Highly sensitive all-solution-based detectors based on printable polycrystalline organometallic perovskite thick films enable X-ray imaging at low radiation doses and over large areas.

    • Yong Churl Kim
    • , Kwang Hee Kim
    • , Dae-Yong Son
    • , Dong-Nyuk Jeong
    • , Ja-Young Seo
    • , Yeong Suk Choi
    • , In Taek Han
    • , Sang Yoon Lee
    •  & Nam-Gyu Park
  • Letter |

    Metal–organic frameworks that undergo a cooperative spin transition at neighbouring metal centres upon coordination to CO exhibit large CO separation capacities with only small changes in temperature.

    • Douglas A. Reed
    • , Benjamin K. Keitz
    • , Julia Oktawiec
    • , Jarad A. Mason
    • , Tomče Runčevski
    • , Dianne J. Xiao
    • , Lucy E. Darago
    • , Valentina Crocellà
    • , Silvia Bordiga
    •  & Jeffrey R. Long
  • Letter |

    Climate change has the potential to erode coastlines, but a rediscovered archive of aerial photographs from the Second World War shows that in southern Greenland, deltas have recently extended seaward.

    • Mette Bendixen
    • , Lars Lønsmann Iversen
    • , Anders Anker Bjørk
    • , Bo Elberling
    • , Andreas Westergaard-Nielsen
    • , Irina Overeem
    • , Katy R. Barnhart
    • , Shfaqat Abbas Khan
    • , Jason E. Box
    • , Jakob Abermann
    • , Kirsty Langley
    •  & Aart Kroon
  • Letter |

    High tree species diversity in tropical forests is driven by reduced interspecific competition relative to intraspecific competition, as a result of the asynchronous timing of tree recruitment permitted by long and stable growing seasons.

    • Jacob Usinowicz
    • , Chia-Hao Chang-Yang
    • , Yu-Yun Chen
    • , James S. Clark
    • , Christine Fletcher
    • , Nancy C. Garwood
    • , Zhanqing Hao
    • , Jill Johnstone
    • , Yiching Lin
    • , Margaret R. Metz
    • , Takashi Masaki
    • , Tohru Nakashizuka
    • , I-Fang Sun
    • , Renato Valencia
    • , Yunyun Wang
    • , Jess K. Zimmerman
    • , Anthony R. Ives
    •  & S. Joseph Wright
  • Letter |

    The Haplobank contains over 100,000 individually reversibly mutagenized, barcoded, mouse embryonic cell lines; proof-of-principle experiments were used to search for genes that are required for rhinovirus infection and angiogenesis using forward and reverse genetic screens, respectively.

    • Ulrich Elling
    • , Reiner A. Wimmer
    • , Andreas Leibbrandt
    • , Thomas Burkard
    • , Georg Michlits
    • , Alexandra Leopoldi
    • , Thomas Micheler
    • , Dana Abdeen
    • , Sergei Zhuk
    • , Irene M. Aspalter
    • , Cornelia Handl
    • , Julia Liebergesell
    • , Maria Hubmann
    • , Anna-Maria Husa
    • , Manuela Kinzer
    • , Nicole Schuller
    • , Ellen Wetzel
    • , Nina van de Loo
    • , Jorge Arturo Zepeda Martinez
    • , David Estoppey
    • , Ralph Riedl
    • , Fengtang Yang
    • , Beiyuan Fu
    • , Thomas Dechat
    • , Zoltán Ivics
    • , Chukwuma A. Agu
    • , Oliver Bell
    • , Dieter Blaas
    • , Holger Gerhardt
    • , Dominic Hoepfner
    • , Alexander Stark
    •  & Josef M. Penninger
  • Letter |

    Lipolysis declines with age because NLRP3 inflammasome-activated adipose tissue macrophages reduce levels of noradrenaline by upregulating genes that control its degradation, such as GDF3 and MAOA.

    • Christina D. Camell
    • , Jil Sander
    • , Olga Spadaro
    • , Aileen Lee
    • , Kim Y. Nguyen
    • , Allison Wing
    • , Emily L. Goldberg
    • , Yun-Hee Youm
    • , Chester W. Brown
    • , John Elsworth
    • , Matthew S. Rodeheffer
    • , Joachim L. Schultze
    •  & Vishwa Deep Dixit
  • Letter |

    Vertebrate genomes contain fewer CG dinucleotides than would be expected by chance, and this pattern is mimicked by many viruses; HIV-1 derivatives mutated to contain more CG dinucleotides are targeted by the human antiviral protein ZAP, suggesting that CG suppression has evolved in viruses to evade recognition.

    • Matthew A. Takata
    • , Daniel Gonçalves-Carneiro
    • , Trinity M. Zang
    • , Steven J. Soll
    • , Ashley York
    • , Daniel Blanco-Melo
    •  & Paul D. Bieniasz
  • Letter |

    A potent and selective catalytic inhibitor of p300/CBP histone acetyltransferases suppresses tumour proliferation across multiple cell lineages, illustrating the therapeutic potential of drug-like small molecules that target histone acetyltransferases.

    • Loren M. Lasko
    • , Clarissa G. Jakob
    • , Rohinton P. Edalji
    • , Wei Qiu
    • , Debra Montgomery
    • , Enrico L. Digiammarino
    • , T. Matt Hansen
    • , Roberto M. Risi
    • , Robin Frey
    • , Vlasios Manaves
    • , Bailin Shaw
    • , Mikkel Algire
    • , Paul Hessler
    • , Lloyd T. Lam
    • , Tamar Uziel
    • , Emily Faivre
    • , Debra Ferguson
    • , Fritz G. Buchanan
    • , Ruth L. Martin
    • , Maricel Torrent
    • , Gary G. Chiang
    • , Kannan Karukurichi
    • , J. William Langston
    • , Brian T. Weinert
    • , Chunaram Choudhary
    • , Peter de Vries
    • , Arthur F. Kluge
    • , Michael A. Patane
    • , John H. Van Drie
    • , Ce Wang
    • , David McElligott
    • , Ed Kesicki
    • , Ronen Marmorstein
    • , Chaohong Sun
    • , Philip A. Cole
    • , Saul H. Rosenberg
    • , Michael R. Michaelides
    • , Albert Lai
    •  & Kenneth D. Bromberg
  • Letter |

    BRAF-inhibition resistance in metastatic melanoma occurs through p21-activated kinase-mediated reactivation of ERK, whereas resistance to combined BRAF and MEK inhibition occurs through p21-activated kinase-mediated regulation of JNK and β-catenin phosphorylation, mTOR pathway activation and apoptosis inhibition in many patients.

    • Hezhe Lu
    • , Shujing Liu
    • , Gao Zhang
    • , Bin Wu
    • , Yueyao Zhu
    • , Dennie T. Frederick
    • , Yi Hu
    • , Wenqun Zhong
    • , Sergio Randell
    • , Norah Sadek
    • , Wei Zhang
    • , Gang Chen
    • , Chaoran Cheng
    • , Jingwen Zeng
    • , Lawrence W. Wu
    • , Jie Zhang
    • , Xiaoming Liu
    • , Wei Xu
    • , Clemens Krepler
    • , Katrin Sproesser
    • , Min Xiao
    • , Benchun Miao
    • , Jianglan Liu
    • , Claire D. Song
    • , Jephrey Y. Liu
    • , Giorgos C. Karakousis
    • , Lynn M. Schuchter
    • , Yiling Lu
    • , Gordon Mills
    • , Yusheng Cong
    • , Jonathan Chernoff
    • , Jun Guo
    • , Genevieve M. Boland
    • , Ryan J. Sullivan
    • , Zhi Wei
    • , Jeffrey Field
    • , Ravi K. Amaravadi
    • , Keith T. Flaherty
    • , Meenhard Herlyn
    • , Xiaowei Xu
    •  & Wei Guo

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