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When a proliferating population of cells completes mitosis, some of the newly born daughter cells immediately enter the next cell cycle whereas other cells switch to a quiescent state. In this weekâs issue, Tobias Meyer and his colleagues reveal how competing memories inherited from the mother cells lead the daughter cells to decide whether to stop or start the subsequent cell cycle. Growth signals cause an accumulation of cyclin D1 messenger RNA in the mother cells, whereas DNA damage leads the cells to contain a higher amount of activated p53. These are passed on to the daughter cells, where the cyclin D1 mRNA is translated into protein and p53 promotes production of the protein p21. Daughter cells that inherit larger amounts of cyclin D1 continue through to the next cell cycle, and those that have a high amount of activated p53 move into quiescence. This results in a system of cell-cycle control that maximizes the health of growing cell populations by preferentially selecting cells with a history of low DNA damage for more frequent proliferation. Cover image: Jeroen Claus/Phospho Biomedical Animation
The idea of nanometre-scale machines that can assemble molecules has long been thought of as the stuff of science fiction. Such a machine has now been built — and might herald a new model for organic synthesis. See Letter p.374
Some versions of the MC1R protein are associated with red hair and an increased risk of developing a skin cancer called melanoma. It emerges that a lipid that binds MC1R might provide a target to reduce this risk. See Letter p.399
Organic materials are potential substitutes for the costly transition-metal oxides used in battery electrodes, but their stability is often poor. A polymer design that uses intermolecular interactions solves this problem.
Mutations in embryonic blood-cell precursors called erythro-myeloid progenitors cause abnormal activation of their descendants — immune cells called microglia — leading to neurodegeneration in mice. See Letter p.389
3D printing could revolutionize manufacturing processes involving metals, but few industrially useful alloys are compatible with the technique. A method has been developed that might open up the 3D printing of all metals. See Letter p.365
Live imaging reveals that whether or not a daughter cell proliferates is influenced by two molecular factors inherited from its mother, providing insight into how the behaviour of a newly born cell can be predetermined. See Letter p.404
Neuromedin receptor NMUR1 is specifically expressed by a subpopulation of type 2 innate lymphoid cells and promotes the inflammatory response of these cells in response to allergens, indicating the importance of neuro-immune crosstalk in allergic responses.
Various fractional quantum Hall phases are observed in a new generation of bilayer-graphene-based van der Waals heterostructures, including an even-denominator state predicted to harbour non-Abelian anyons.
Zirconium nanoparticles introduced into aluminium alloy powders control solidification during 3D printing, enabling the production of crack-free materials with strengths comparable to the corresponding wrought material.
A molecular machine that can be programmed to position a substrate at one of two directing sites on a molecule, which control the stereochemistry of addition to the substrate, demonstrates complexity, precision and function previously only observed in nature.
WebComparing the whole genome sequence of Apostasia shenzhenica with transcriptome and genome data from five orchid subfamilies permits the reconstruction of an ancestral gene toolkit, providing insight into orchid origins, evolution and diversification.
Surface diffusion of AMPA receptors, from extra-synaptic to synaptic sites at the plasma membrane, is essential for full long-term potentiation in hippocampal neurons and for fear conditioning in living mice.
Braf V600E expression in resident macrophage progenitors leads to clonal expansion of ERK-activated microglia, which causes synaptic and neuronal loss in the brain and results in lethal neurodegenerative disease in adult mice.
Mother cells transmit mitogen-induced CCND1 mRNA and DNA damage-induced p53 protein to newly born daughter cells, where synthesized cyclin D1 and the p53-regulated CDK inhibitor p21 directly compete to decide between proliferation and quiescence.
Combining ancestral protein reconstruction with deep mutational scanning to characterize alternative histories in the sequence space around an ancient transcription factor reveals hundreds of alternative protein sequences that use diverse biochemical mechanisms to perform the derived function at least as well as the historical outcome.
The cryo-electron microscopy structure of the ten-subunit human transcription factor IIH, revealing the molecular architecture of the TFIIH core complex, the detailed structures of its constituent XPB and XPD ATPases, and how the core and kinase subcomplexes of TFIIH are connected.