Volume 540 Issue 7634, 22 December 2016

Once again, we end the year by selecting �Nature�s Ten�, ten scientists whose work this year has had an important impact in their respective fields. They are Gabriela Gonzalez, Demis Hassabis, Terry Hughes, Guus Velders, Celina Turchi, Alexandra Elbakyan, John Zhang, Kevin Esvelt, Guillem Anglada-Escud� and Elena Long. Cover: �Gravity waves� JVG/Folio art

This Week

News In Focus

Comment

Careers

Specials

    Outlook

  • Outlook |

    The symptoms of Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, the two main forms of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), can be severe and lifelong. And the condition is becoming increasingly common worldwide.

    • Michael Eisenstein

    Nature Outlook:

  • Outlook |

    Helminths are worms that can live in the human intestine. Joel Weinstock, a gastroenterologist at Tufts Medical Center in Boston, Massachusetts, studies how they affect inflammation and the body's immune response. He spoke to Nature about how helminths might lead to treatments for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD).

    • Neil Savage

    Nature Outlook:

  • Outlook |

    Gene exploration is providing unexpected insights into inflammatory bowel disease, and getting scientists closer to finding treatments that target the biological mechanisms.

    • Sarah DeWeerdt

    Nature Outlook:

  • Outlook |

    Many people with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) also have mental health issues. Eva Szigethy, a psychiatrist at the University of Pittsburgh in Pennsylvania, studies how cognitive therapy can help people with gastrointestinal problems. She spoke to Nature about the relationship between mental health and IBD.

    • Neil Savage

    Nature Outlook:

Research

    News & Views

  • News & Views |

    Two studies in mice identify mechanisms by which tumour cells disseminate in very early breast cancer. Both show that these cells colonize distant tissues more efficiently than their later counterparts. See Article p.552 & Letter p.588

    • Cyrus M. Ghajar
    •  & Mina J. Bissell
  • News & Views |

    Cage-like structures can self-assemble from suitable metal ions and organic linkers, but the size of the assemblies was limited. The surprise discovery of a new series of cages opens up fresh horizons for self-assembly. See Letter p.563

    • Florian Beuerle
  • News & Views |

    Plaque deposits often occur in curved arterial regions with turbulent blood flow. Endothelial cells have been found to respond to blood flow through a previously unidentified signalling pathway that affects plaque build-up. See Letter p.579

    • Vedanta Mehta
    •  & Ellie Tzima
  • News & Views |

    It emerges that a dogfish shark's spine becomes stiffer as the fish swims faster, enabling the animal to swim efficiently at different speeds. The finding could also provide inspiration for the design of robotic biomaterials.

    • Matthew A. Kolmann
    •  & Adam P. Summers
  • News & Views |

    Quantum spin liquids are exotic states of matter first predicted more than 40 years ago. An inorganic material has properties consistent with these predictions, revealing details about the nature of quantum matter. See Letter p.559

    • Leon Balents
  • Articles

  • Article |

    Profiling the total RNA of 220 invertebrate species leads to the discovery of almost 1,500 new species of RNA virus, revealing that the RNA virosphere is much more diverse than was previously thought.

    • Mang Shi
    • , Xian-Dan Lin
    • , Jun-Hua Tian
    • , Liang-Jun Chen
    • , Xiao Chen
    • , Ci-Xiu Li
    • , Xin-Cheng Qin
    • , Jun Li
    • , Jian-Ping Cao
    • , John-Sebastian Eden
    • , Jan Buchmann
    • , Wen Wang
    • , Jianguo Xu
    • , Edward C. Holmes
    •  & Yong-Zhen Zhang
  • Article |

    The identification of an intestinal microbiome signature that persists after successful dieting in obese mice and contributes to faster weight regain upon re-exposure to an obesity-promoting diet, and that transmits the altered weight regain phenotype to non-dieting mice.

    • Christoph A. Thaiss
    • , Shlomik Itav
    • , Daphna Rothschild
    • , Mariska T. Meijer
    • , Maayan Levy
    • , Claudia Moresi
    • , Lenka Dohnalová
    • , Sofia Braverman
    • , Shachar Rozin
    • , Sergey Malitsky
    • , Mally Dori-Bachash
    • , Yael Kuperman
    • , Inbal Biton
    • , Arieh Gertler
    • , Alon Harmelin
    • , Hagit Shapiro
    • , Zamir Halpern
    • , Asaph Aharoni
    • , Eran Segal
    •  & Eran Elinav
  • Article |

    Two related papers show that cells disseminated from malignant lesions at early time points during tumorigenesis can contribute to metastases at distant organs and provide insights into the molecular basis of dissemination.

    • Hedayatollah Hosseini
    • , Milan M. S. Obradović
    • , Martin Hoffmann
    • , Kathryn L. Harper
    • , Maria Soledad Sosa
    • , Melanie Werner-Klein
    • , Lahiri Kanth Nanduri
    • , Christian Werno
    • , Carolin Ehrl
    • , Matthias Maneck
    • , Nina Patwary
    • , Gundula Haunschild
    • , Miodrag Gužvić
    • , Christian Reimelt
    • , Michael Grauvogl
    • , Norbert Eichner
    • , Florian Weber
    • , Andreas D. Hartkopf
    • , Florin-Andrei Taran
    • , Sara Y. Brucker
    • , Tanja Fehm
    • , Brigitte Rack
    • , Stefan Buchholz
    • , Rainer Spang
    • , Gunter Meister
    • , Julio A. Aguirre-Ghiso
    •  & Christoph A. Klein
  • Letters

  • Letter |

    A spin excitation continuum across a large region of the Brillouin zone that persists at near-zero temperatures provides evidence for a quantum spin liquid state with a spinon Fermi surface in YbMgGaO4.

    • Yao Shen
    • , Yao-Dong Li
    • , Hongliang Wo
    • , Yuesheng Li
    • , Shoudong Shen
    • , Bingying Pan
    • , Qisi Wang
    • , H. C. Walker
    • , P. Steffens
    • , M. Boehm
    • , Yiqing Hao
    • , D. L. Quintero-Castro
    • , L. W. Harriger
    • , M. D. Frontzek
    • , Lijie Hao
    • , Siqin Meng
    • , Qingming Zhang
    • , Gang Chen
    •  & Jun Zhao
  • Letter |

    There is an abrupt transition from alkaline to acid soil pH when mean annual precipitation exceeds mean annual potential evapotranspiration, demonstrating that climate creates a nonlinear pattern in soil solution chemistry at the global scale.

    • E. W. Slessarev
    • , Y. Lin
    • , N. L. Bingham
    • , J. E. Johnson
    • , Y. Dai
    • , J. P. Schimel
    •  & O. A. Chadwick
  • Letter |

    Treatment with signalling precursors of trehalose-6-phosphate allows light-triggered release of trehalose-6-phosphate in Arabidopsis thaliana and increases the yield and drought resistance of spring wheat (Triticum aestivum).

    • Cara A. Griffiths
    • , Ram Sagar
    • , Yiqun Geng
    • , Lucia F. Primavesi
    • , Mitul K. Patel
    • , Melissa K. Passarelli
    • , Ian S. Gilmore
    • , Rory T. Steven
    • , Josephine Bunch
    • , Matthew J. Paul
    •  & Benjamin G. Davis
  • Letter |

    YAP and TAZ, effectors of the Hippo pathway, sense mechanical forces generated by blood flow and play a role in atherosclerosis pathogenesis.

    • Li Wang
    • , Jiang-Yun Luo
    • , Bochuan Li
    • , Xiao Yu Tian
    • , Li-Jing Chen
    • , Yuhong Huang
    • , Jian Liu
    • , Dan Deng
    • , Chi Wai Lau
    • , Song Wan
    • , Ding Ai
    • , King-Lun Kingston Mak
    • , Ka Kui Tong
    • , Kin Ming Kwan
    • , Nanping Wang
    • , Jeng-Jiann Chiu
    • , Yi Zhu
    •  & Yu Huang
  • Letter |

    Mice deficient in the protein NLRC3 are highly prone to colitis and tumour development in the colon as NLRC3 suppresses the activation of mTOR signalling pathways that help drive tumorigenesis.

    • Rajendra Karki
    • , Si Ming Man
    • , R. K. Subbarao Malireddi
    • , Sannula Kesavardhana
    • , Qifan Zhu
    • , Amanda R. Burton
    • , Bhesh Raj Sharma
    • , Xiaopeng Qi
    • , Stephane Pelletier
    • , Peter Vogel
    • , Philip Rosenstiel
    •  & Thirumala-Devi Kanneganti
  • Letter |

    Two related papers show that cells disseminated from malignant lesions at early time points during tumorigenesis can contribute to metastases at distant organs and provide insights into the molecular basis of dissemination.

    • Kathryn L. Harper
    • , Maria Soledad Sosa
    • , David Entenberg
    • , Hedayatollah Hosseini
    • , Julie F. Cheung
    • , Rita Nobre
    • , Alvaro Avivar-Valderas
    • , Chandandaneep Nagi
    • , Nomeda Girnius
    • , Roger J. Davis
    • , Eduardo F. Farias
    • , John Condeelis
    • , Christoph A. Klein
    •  & Julio A. Aguirre-Ghiso
  • Letter |

    The authors report the structure of the assembled membrane spanning ring forming proteins of the Salmonella Typhimurium injectisome basal body, including the first atomic structure of a member of the secretin family of outer-membrane pores.

    • L. J. Worrall
    • , C. Hong
    • , M. Vuckovic
    • , W. Deng
    • , J. R. C. Bergeron
    • , D. D Majewski
    • , R. K. Huang
    • , T. Spreter
    • , B. B. Finlay
    • , Z. Yu
    •  & N. C. J. Strynadka
  • Letter |

    The authors report a 2.6 Å resolution crystal structure of the human CB1 cannabinoid receptor trapped in the inactive conformation and bound to the antagonist taranabant.

    • Zhenhua Shao
    • , Jie Yin
    • , Karen Chapman
    • , Magdalena Grzemska
    • , Lindsay Clark
    • , Junmei Wang
    •  & Daniel M. Rosenbaum
  • Letter |

    Structures of budding yeast RNA polymerase I in a catalytically active conformation are presented and confirmed by visualizing processive transcription along ribosomal DNA genes; they support a general model for transcription elongation in which contracted and expanded polymerase conformations are associated with active and inactive states, respectively.

    • Simon Neyer
    • , Michael Kunz
    • , Christian Geiss
    • , Merle Hantsche
    • , Victor-Valentin Hodirnau
    • , Anja Seybert
    • , Christoph Engel
    • , Margot P. Scheffer
    • , Patrick Cramer
    •  & Achilleas S. Frangakis
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