Volume 540 Issue 7633, 15 December 2016

A seahorse at the Lembeh Strait, Sulawesi, Indonesia. Seahorses are prime examples of the exuberance of evolution and are unique amongst bony fish on several counts, including their equine body shape and male brood pouch. An international collaboration reporting in this issue of Nature has determined the genome sequence of a seahorse (Hippocampus comes, the tiger tail seahorse). They find it to be the most rapidly evolving fish genome studied so far. H. comes is among the most commonly traded seahorse species � dried for traditional medicines and live for the aquarium trade � and is on the IUCN Red List as a �vulnerable� species. Analysis of the genomic sequence provides insights into the evolution of its unique morphology. Of note is the absence of a master control gene, tbx4, which functions in the development of hindlimbs and pelvic fins. Pelvic fins are missing in seahorses, and tbx4-knockout mutant zebrafish also lack pelvic fins. Cover: Jeff Rotman/Getty Images

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  • Brief Communications Arising |

    • Misa Hirose
    • , Paul Schilf
    • , Yask Gupta
    • , Marvin N. Wright
    • , Marvin N. Wright
    • , Olaf Jöhren
    • , Anika E. Wagner
    • , Christian Sina
    • , Andreas Ziegler
    • , Michael Ristow
    •  & Saleh M. Ibrahim
  • News & Views

  • News & Views |

    Structures of two chemokine receptor proteins in complex with small molecules reveal a previously unknown binding pocket that could be a drug target for treating a range of diseases involving this receptor family. See Letters p.458 & p.462

    • Thomas P. Sakmar
    •  & Thomas Huber
  • News & Views |

    A method has been devised that allows a ketoreductase enzyme to catalyse reactions other than its natural ones. The key is to excite the enzyme's cofactor using light – an approach that might work for other enzymes. See Letter p.414

    • Uwe T. Bornscheuer
  • News & Views |

    Can simple genetic risk profiles be identified for complex diseases? The development of a gene-expression profile for acute myeloid leukaemia suggests that they can, and that they may improve prognosis prediction. See Letter p.433

    • Gerrit J. Schuurhuis
  • News & Views |

    High-resolution satellite mapping of Earth's surface water during the past 32 years reveals changes in the planet's water systems, including the influence of natural cycles and human activities. See Letter p.418

    • Dai Yamazaki
    •  & Mark A. Trigg
  • News & Views |

    Activation of aged muscle stem cells induces changes in DNA packaging that lead to expression of the gene Hoxa9. This reactivates embryonic signalling pathways, restricting the cells' ability to repair injured muscle. See Letter p.428

    • Susan Eliazer
    •  & Andrew S. Brack
  • News & Views |

    Retinal-cell transplants restore vision in mouse models of retinal degeneration. It emerges that the transplant leads to an exchange of material between donor and host cells — not to donor-cell integration into the retina, as had been presumed.

    • Michael A. Dyer
  • Articles

  • Article | | open

    Here, the genome sequence of the tiger tail seahorse is reported and comparative genomic analyses with other ray-finned fishes are used to explore the genetic basis of the unique morphology and reproductive system of the seahorse.

    • Qiang Lin
    • , Shaohua Fan
    • , Yanhong Zhang
    • , Meng Xu
    • , Huixian Zhang
    • , Yulan Yang
    • , Alison P. Lee
    • , Joost M. Woltering
    • , Vydianathan Ravi
    • , Helen M. Gunter
    • , Wei Luo
    • , Zexia Gao
    • , Zhi Wei Lim
    • , Geng Qin
    • , Ralf F. Schneider
    • , Xin Wang
    • , Peiwen Xiong
    • , Gang Li
    • , Kai Wang
    • , Jiumeng Min
    • , Chi Zhang
    • , Ying Qiu
    • , Jie Bai
    • , Weiming He
    • , Chao Bian
    • , Xinhui Zhang
    • , Dai Shan
    • , Hongyue Qu
    • , Ying Sun
    • , Qiang Gao
    • , Liangmin Huang
    • , Qiong Shi
    • , Axel Meyer
    •  & Byrappa Venkatesh
  • Article |

    A new method in which strong electric fields are applied to a protein crystal while collecting time-resolved X-ray diffraction patterns is able to follow the mechanical motions of all the constituent atoms, with implications for molecular biology and drug discovery.

    • Doeke R. Hekstra
    • , K. Ian White
    • , Michael A. Socolich
    • , Robert W. Henning
    • , Vukica Šrajer
    •  & Rama Ranganathan
  • Letters

  • Letter |

    A freely available dataset produced from three million Landsat satellite images reveals substantial changes in the distribution of global surface water over the past 32 years and their causes, from climate change to human actions.

    • Jean-François Pekel
    • , Andrew Cottam
    • , Noel Gorelick
    •  & Alan S. Belward
  • Letter |

    Gene expression analysis in brain tissue from individuals with and without autism spectrum disorder (ASD) suggests that the transcription factor SOX5 contributes to an ASD-associated reduction in transcriptional differences between brain areas and indicates that common transcriptomic changes occur in different forms of ASD.

    • Neelroop N. Parikshak
    • , Vivek Swarup
    • , T. Grant Belgard
    • , Manuel Irimia
    • , Gokul Ramaswami
    • , Michael J. Gandal
    • , Christopher Hartl
    • , Virpi Leppa
    • , Luis de la Torre Ubieta
    • , Jerry Huang
    • , Jennifer K. Lowe
    • , Benjamin J. Blencowe
    • , Steve Horvath
    •  & Daniel H. Geschwind
  • Letter |

    Changes in active chromatin marks in old activated satellite cells lead to Hoxa9 activation, which induces the expression of developmental pathway genes with a known inhibitory effect on satellite cell function and muscle regeneration in aged mice.

    • Simon Schwörer
    • , Friedrich Becker
    • , Christian Feller
    • , Ali H. Baig
    • , Ute Köber
    • , Henriette Henze
    • , Johann M. Kraus
    • , Beibei Xin
    • , André Lechel
    • , Daniel B. Lipka
    • , Christy S. Varghese
    • , Manuel Schmidt
    • , Remo Rohs
    • , Ruedi Aebersold
    • , Kay L. Medina
    • , Hans A. Kestler
    • , Francesco Neri
    • , Julia von Maltzahn
    • , Stefan Tümpel
    •  & K. Lenhard Rudolph
  • Letter |

    A rapid gene signature test (LSC17) that captures stem cell expression programs in acute myeloid leukaemia patients at diagnosis is associated with therapy response and survival, facilitating initial treatment stratification.

    • Stanley W. K. Ng
    • , Amanda Mitchell
    • , James A. Kennedy
    • , Weihsu C. Chen
    • , Jessica McLeod
    • , Narmin Ibrahimova
    • , Andrea Arruda
    • , Andreea Popescu
    • , Vikas Gupta
    • , Aaron D. Schimmer
    • , Andre C. Schuh
    • , Karen W. Yee
    • , Lars Bullinger
    • , Tobias Herold
    • , Dennis Görlich
    • , Thomas Büchner
    • , Wolfgang Hiddemann
    • , Wolfgang E. Berdel
    • , Bernhard Wörmann
    • , Meyling Cheok
    • , Claude Preudhomme
    • , Hervé Dombret
    • , Klaus Metzeler
    • , Christian Buske
    • , Bob Löwenberg
    • , Peter J. M. Valk
    • , Peter W. Zandstra
    • , Mark D. Minden
    • , John E. Dick
    •  & Jean C. Y. Wang
  • Letter |

    Infection of male mice with Zika virus caused testicular and epididymal damage, reduction in sex hormone levels, destruction of germ and somatic cells in the testis, loss of mature sperm and reduction in fertility.

    • Jennifer Govero
    • , Prabagaran Esakky
    • , Suzanne M. Scheaffer
    • , Estefania Fernandez
    • , Andrea Drury
    • , Derek J. Platt
    • , Matthew J. Gorman
    • , Justin M. Richner
    • , Elizabeth A. Caine
    • , Vanessa Salazar
    • , Kelle H. Moley
    •  & Michael S. Diamond
  • Letter |

    Monoclonal Zika-virus-neutralizing human antibodies can protect against maternal–fetal transmission, infection and disease.

    • Gopal Sapparapu
    • , Estefania Fernandez
    • , Nurgun Kose
    • , Bin Cao
    • , Julie M. Fox
    • , Robin G. Bombardi
    • , Haiyan Zhao
    • , Christopher A. Nelson
    • , Aubrey L. Bryan
    • , Trevor Barnes
    • , Edgar Davidson
    • , Indira U. Mysorekar
    • , Daved H. Fremont
    • , Benjamin J. Doranz
    • , Michael S. Diamond
    •  & James E. Crowe
  • Letter |

    Human TRIM5α restricts HIV-1 infection of Langerhans cells through Langerin-dependent autophagy pathway.

    • Carla M. S. Ribeiro
    • , Ramin Sarrami-Forooshani
    • , Laurentia C. Setiawan
    • , Esther M. Zijlstra-Willems
    • , John L. van Hamme
    • , Wikky Tigchelaar
    • , Nicole N. van der Wel
    • , Neeltje A. Kootstra
    • , Sonja I. Gringhuis
    •  & Teunis B. H. Geijtenbeek
  • Letter |

    The structures of three intermediate states of photosystem II, which is crucial for photosynthesis, have been solved at room temperature, shedding new light on this process.

    • Iris D. Young
    • , Mohamed Ibrahim
    • , Ruchira Chatterjee
    • , Sheraz Gul
    • , Franklin D. Fuller
    • , Sergey Koroidov
    • , Aaron S. Brewster
    • , Rosalie Tran
    • , Roberto Alonso-Mori
    • , Thomas Kroll
    • , Tara Michels-Clark
    • , Hartawan Laksmono
    • , Raymond G. Sierra
    • , Claudiu A. Stan
    • , Rana Hussein
    • , Miao Zhang
    • , Lacey Douthit
    • , Markus Kubin
    • , Casper de Lichtenberg
    • , Long Vo Pham
    • , Håkan Nilsson
    • , Mun Hon Cheah
    • , Dmitriy Shevela
    • , Claudio Saracini
    • , Mackenzie A. Bean
    • , Ina Seuffert
    • , Dimosthenis Sokaras
    • , Tsu-Chien Weng
    • , Ernest Pastor
    • , Clemens Weninger
    • , Thomas Fransson
    • , Louise Lassalle
    • , Philipp Bräuer
    • , Pierre Aller
    • , Peter T. Docker
    • , Babak Andi
    • , Allen M. Orville
    • , James M. Glownia
    • , Silke Nelson
    • , Marcin Sikorski
    • , Diling Zhu
    • , Mark S. Hunter
    • , Thomas J. Lane
    • , Andy Aquila
    • , Jason E. Koglin
    • , Joseph Robinson
    • , Mengning Liang
    • , Sébastien Boutet
    • , Artem Y. Lyubimov
    • , Monarin Uervirojnangkoorn
    • , Nigel W. Moriarty
    • , Dorothee Liebschner
    • , Pavel V. Afonine
    • , David G. Waterman
    • , Gwyndaf Evans
    • , Philippe Wernet
    • , Holger Dobbek
    • , William I. Weis
    • , Axel T. Brunger
    • , Petrus H. Zwart
    • , Paul D. Adams
    • , Athina Zouni
    • , Johannes Messinger
    • , Uwe Bergmann
    • , Nicholas K. Sauter
    • , Jan Kern
    • , Vittal K. Yachandra
    •  & Junko Yano
  • Letter |

    The crystal structure of CCR2 chemokine receptor in a complex with two different antagonists—one orthosteric the other allosteric—which functionally cooperate to inhibit CCR2.

    • Yi Zheng
    • , Ling Qin
    • , Natalia V. Ortiz Zacarías
    • , Henk de Vries
    • , Gye Won Han
    • , Martin Gustavsson
    • , Marta Dabros
    • , Chunxia Zhao
    • , Robert J. Cherney
    • , Percy Carter
    • , Dean Stamos
    • , Ruben Abagyan
    • , Vadim Cherezov
    • , Raymond C. Stevens
    • , Adriaan P. IJzerman
    • , Laura H. Heitman
    • , Andrew Tebben
    • , Irina Kufareva
    •  & Tracy M. Handel
  • Letter |

    The crystal structure of the CCR9 chemokine receptor in complex with vercirnon at 2.8 Å resolution.

    • Christine Oswald
    • , Mathieu Rappas
    • , James Kean
    • , Andrew S. Doré
    • , James C. Errey
    • , Kirstie Bennett
    • , Francesca Deflorian
    • , John A. Christopher
    • , Ali Jazayeri
    • , Jonathan S. Mason
    • , Miles Congreve
    • , Robert M. Cooke
    •  & Fiona H. Marshall
  • Letter |

    The crystal structures of ISWI, the catalytic subunit of several chromatin remodelling complexes, and its complex with a histone H4 peptide are reported.

    • Lijuan Yan
    • , Li Wang
    • , Yuanyuan Tian
    • , Xian Xia
    •  & Zhucheng Chen

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