Volume 540 Issue 7632, 8 December 2016

Iceberg and fjord walls, Scoresby Sund , East Greenland. If the Greenland Ice Sheet were to melt completely, global sea levels would rise dramatically, perhaps by several metres. Two studies published in this issue of Nature, by Joerg Schaefer and colleagues and by Paul Bierman and colleagues, examine the past behaviour of the ice sheet to help evaluate its vulnerability in a warming world. Although analysing the same cosmogenic isotopes, the two groups arrive at seemingly conflicting conclusions. In a News & Views Forum, two geochemists and a glaciologist discuss the issues arising from these papers. Cover: Frans Lanting/National Graphic Creative

This Week

News In Focus

Comment

Careers

Specials

Research

    News & Views

  • News & Views Forum |

    Global sea levels would rise by several metres if the Greenland Ice Sheet melted completely. Two studies have examined its past behaviour in an effort to evaluate its vulnerability in a warming world — and have come to seemingly conflicting conclusions. Two geochemists and a glaciologist discuss the issues. See Letters p.252 & p.256

    • Pierre-Henri Blard
    • , Guillaume Leduc
    •  & Neil Glasser
  • News & Views |

    Viruses can be attacked by parasitic viruses, which compete with them for cellular resources. It emerges that one such parasitic virus can defend a host-cell population from a viral attack. See Letter p.288

    • Eugene V. Koonin
    •  & Mart Krupovic
  • News & Views |

    The chemical composition of a massive galaxy in the early Universe reveals an extremely short period of star formation. This result could challenge our ideas about the evolution of galaxies and of the Universe itself. See Letter p.248

    • Chiaki Kobayashi
  • News & Views |

    Electrical oscillations generated by neural circuits are disrupted in Alzheimer's disease. Restoring these oscillations in mouse models activates immune cells to clear disease-associated amyloid-β protein from the brain. See Article p.230

    • Liviu Aron
    •  & Bruce A. Yankner
  • News & Views |

    In 1976, it was demonstrated that tiny wobbles in Earth's orbit led to the great ice-age cycles of the past few million years. This finding had wide implications for climate science and the details remain hotly debated today.

    • Mark Maslin
  • News & Views |

    Nuclear DNA from human eggs that harbour mutations in the DNA of organelles called mitochondria has been successfully transferred to donor eggs, bringing the prospect of therapy for mitochondrial diseases a step closer. See Letter p.270

    • Eric A. Shoubridge
  • News & Views |

    Human stem cells that can give rise to every cell type in the body are major players in biomedical research. A molecular analysis of human embryos might help to make these cultured cells more authentic imitations of their in vivo counterparts.

    • Ido Sagi
    •  & Nissim Benvenisty
  • Reviews

  • Review Article |

    Quantum technology enables new methods for generating of randomness with minimal assumptions, certified by the violation of a Bell inequality, which opens up new theoretical and experimental research directions and leads to new challenges.

    • Antonio Acín
    •  & Lluis Masanes
  • Review Article |

    Wild and managed pollinators are threatened by pressures such as environmental changes and pesticides, leading to risks for pollinator-dependent crop production, meaning more research and better policies are needed to safeguard pollinators and their services.

    • Simon G. Potts
    • , Vera Imperatriz-Fonseca
    • , Hien T. Ngo
    • , Marcelo A. Aizen
    • , Jacobus C. Biesmeijer
    • , Thomas D. Breeze
    • , Lynn V. Dicks
    • , Lucas A. Garibaldi
    • , Rosemary Hill
    • , Josef Settele
    •  & Adam J. Vanbergen
  • Articles

  • Article |

    Mouse models of Alzheimer’s disease show reduced, behaviourally driven gamma oscillations before the onset of plaque formation or cognitive decline; driving neurons to oscillate at gamma frequency (40 Hz) reduces levels of amyloid-β peptides.

    • Hannah F. Iaccarino
    • , Annabelle C. Singer
    • , Anthony J. Martorell
    • , Andrii Rudenko
    • , Fan Gao
    • , Tyler Z. Gillingham
    • , Hansruedi Mathys
    • , Jinsoo Seo
    • , Oleg Kritskiy
    • , Fatema Abdurrob
    • , Chinnakkaruppan Adaikkan
    • , Rebecca G. Canter
    • , Richard Rueda
    • , Emery N. Brown
    • , Edward S. Boyden
    •  & Li-Huei Tsai
  • Article |

    S-2-hydroxyglutarate produced by CD8+ T cells under hypoxic conditions affects locus-specific histone and DNA methylation patterns, which enhances T-cell proliferation, survival and recall responses.

    • Petros A. Tyrakis
    • , Asis Palazon
    • , David Macias
    • , Kian. L. Lee
    • , Anthony. T. Phan
    • , Pedro Veliça
    • , Jia You
    • , Grace S. Chia
    • , Jingwei Sim
    • , Andrew Doedens
    • , Alice Abelanet
    • , Colin E. Evans
    • , John R. Griffiths
    • , Lorenz Poellinger
    • , Ananda W. Goldrath
    •  & Randall S. Johnson
  • Article |

    One of the most abundant modifications found in messenger RNAs is N6-methyladenosine (m6A); here, this modification is shown to alter gene expression during sex determination and affect neuronal functions and behaviour in Drosophila via the m6A reader protein YT521-B.

    • Tina Lence
    • , Junaid Akhtar
    • , Marc Bayer
    • , Katharina Schmid
    • , Laura Spindler
    • , Cheuk Hei Ho
    • , Nastasja Kreim
    • , Miguel A. Andrade-Navarro
    • , Burkhard Poeck
    • , Mark Helm
    •  & Jean-Yves Roignant
  • Letters

  • Letter |

    The ratio of magnesium to iron abundance is measured for a massive quiescent galaxy at a redshift of 2.1, corresponding to when the Universe was three billion years old.

    • Mariska Kriek
    • , Charlie Conroy
    • , Pieter G. van Dokkum
    • , Alice E. Shapley
    • , Jieun Choi
    • , Naveen A. Reddy
    • , Brian Siana
    • , Freeke van de Voort
    • , Alison L. Coil
    •  & Bahram Mobasher
  • Letter |

    Measurements of cosmic-ray-produced 10Be and 26Al in a bedrock core from beneath the summit of the Greenland Ice Sheet show that Greenland was nearly ice-free for extended periods under Pleistocene climate forcing.

    • Joerg M. Schaefer
    • , Robert C. Finkel
    • , Greg Balco
    • , Richard B. Alley
    • , Marc W. Caffee
    • , Jason P. Briner
    • , Nicolas E. Young
    • , Anthony J. Gow
    •  & Roseanne Schwartz
  • Letter |

    Seismic observations clarify the roles of magma pressure and tectonic stress in the development of seafloor spreading during the most recent eruption at the East Pacific Rise.

    • Yen Joe Tan
    • , Maya Tolstoy
    • , Felix Waldhauser
    •  & William S. D. Wilcock
  • Letter |

    Analysis of a large grassland biodiversity dataset shows that increases in local land-use intensity cause biotic homogenization at landscape scale across microbial, plant and animal groups, both above- and belowground, that is largely independent of changes in local diversity.

    • Martin M. Gossner
    • , Thomas M. Lewinsohn
    • , Tiemo Kahl
    • , Fabrice Grassein
    • , Steffen Boch
    • , Daniel Prati
    • , Klaus Birkhofer
    • , Swen C. Renner
    • , Johannes Sikorski
    • , Tesfaye Wubet
    • , Hartmut Arndt
    • , Vanessa Baumgartner
    • , Stefan Blaser
    • , Nico Blüthgen
    • , Carmen Börschig
    • , Francois Buscot
    • , Tim Diekötter
    • , Leonardo Ré Jorge
    • , Kirsten Jung
    • , Alexander C. Keyel
    • , Alexandra-Maria Klein
    • , Sandra Klemmer
    • , Jochen Krauss
    • , Markus Lange
    • , Jörg Müller
    • , Jörg Overmann
    • , Esther Pašalić
    • , Caterina Penone
    • , David J. Perović
    • , Oliver Purschke
    • , Peter Schall
    • , Stephanie A. Socher
    • , Ilja Sonnemann
    • , Marco Tschapka
    • , Teja Tscharntke
    • , Manfred Türke
    • , Paul Christiaan Venter
    • , Christiane N. Weiner
    • , Michael Werner
    • , Volkmar Wolters
    • , Susanne Wurst
    • , Catrin Westphal
    • , Markus Fischer
    • , Wolfgang W. Weisser
    •  & Eric Allan
  • Letter |

    Analysis of mitochondrial replacement therapy shows, even with efficient mutant mitochondrial DNA replacement and maintenance in embryonic stem cells, a gradual loss of donor mitochondrial DNA in some lines owing to a polymorphism in the D-loop, potentially causing preferential replication of specific mitochondrial DNA haplotypes.

    • Eunju Kang
    • , Jun Wu
    • , Nuria Marti Gutierrez
    • , Amy Koski
    • , Rebecca Tippner-Hedges
    • , Karen Agaronyan
    • , Aida Platero-Luengo
    • , Paloma Martinez-Redondo
    • , Hong Ma
    • , Yeonmi Lee
    • , Tomonari Hayama
    • , Crystal Van Dyken
    • , Xinjian Wang
    • , Shiyu Luo
    • , Riffat Ahmed
    • , Ying Li
    • , Dongmei Ji
    • , Refik Kayali
    • , Cengiz Cinnioglu
    • , Susan Olson
    • , Jeffrey Jensen
    • , David Battaglia
    • , David Lee
    • , Diana Wu
    • , Taosheng Huang
    • , Don P. Wolf
    • , Dmitry Temiakov
    • , Juan Carlos Izpisua Belmonte
    • , Paula Amato
    •  & Shoukhrat Mitalipov
  • Letter |

    Changes in intronic polyadenylation of the Pdgfra in fibro/adipogenic progenitors lead to increased expression of a shorter variant with a truncated kinase domain, which modulates pro-fibrotic pathways to reduce tissue fibrosis in muscle.

    • Alisa A. Mueller
    • , Cindy T. van Velthoven
    • , Kathryn D. Fukumoto
    • , Tom H. Cheung
    •  & Thomas A. Rando
  • Letter |

    Certain commensal enterobacteria secrete small proteins called microcins that suppress the growth of other bacteria in the inflamed gut, conferring an intra- and interspecies competitive advantage.

    • Martina Sassone-Corsi
    • , Sean-Paul Nuccio
    • , Henry Liu
    • , Dulcemaria Hernandez
    • , Christine T. Vu
    • , Amy A. Takahashi
    • , Robert A. Edwards
    •  & Manuela Raffatellu
  • Letter |

    A combination of therapeutic vaccination with Ad26/MVA and stimulation of innate immune responses leads to improved virologic control and delayed rebound in SIV-infected macaques following discontinuation of antiretroviral therapy.

    • Erica N. Borducchi
    • , Crystal Cabral
    • , Kathryn E. Stephenson
    • , Jinyan Liu
    • , Peter Abbink
    • , David Ng’ang’a
    • , Joseph P. Nkolola
    • , Amanda L. Brinkman
    • , Lauren Peter
    • , Benjamin C. Lee
    • , Jessica Jimenez
    • , David Jetton
    • , Jade Mondesir
    • , Shanell Mojta
    • , Abishek Chandrashekar
    • , Katherine Molloy
    • , Galit Alter
    • , Jeffrey M. Gerold
    • , Alison L. Hill
    • , Mark G. Lewis
    • , Maria G. Pau
    • , Hanneke Schuitemaker
    • , Joseph Hesselgesser
    • , Romas Geleziunas
    • , Jerome H. Kim
    • , Merlin L. Robb
    • , Nelson L. Michael
    •  & Dan H. Barouch
  • Letter |

    Autonomously produced hybrid biological nanomaterials termed ‘enveloped protein nanocages’ incorporate features for membrane binding, self-assembly, and ESCRT recruitment for cellular release.

    • Jörg Votteler
    • , Cassandra Ogohara
    • , Sue Yi
    • , Yang Hsia
    • , Una Nattermann
    • , David M. Belnap
    • , Neil P. King
    •  & Wesley I. Sundquist
  • Letter |

    A conformation capture sequencing method is developed to link multiple genomic loci into three-dimensional proximity chains called chromosomal walks (C-walks), adding to our understanding of how higher-order chromosomal structures participate in genome regulation.

    • Pedro Olivares-Chauvet
    • , Zohar Mukamel
    • , Aviezer Lifshitz
    • , Omer Schwartzman
    • , Noa Oded Elkayam
    • , Yaniv Lubling
    • , Gintaras Deikus
    • , Robert P. Sebra
    •  & Amos Tanay

    Collection:

Corrections

Newsletter Get the most important science stories of the day, free in your inbox. Sign up for Nature Briefing