Volume 538 Issue 7626, 27 October 2016

This special issue of Nature explores some of the concerns of early-career scientists by attempting to give them a voice. We talk to young researchers battling to establish their labs, hoping to innovate and at the same time build a career when so much emphasis is placed on paper counts. And at a time when career progression is hampered by a global postdoc glut, scarce funding and the disappearance of tenure-track posts, we argue in our Editorial on page 427 that it is up to everyone in science � young and old � to ensure that the next generation of researchers is not lost.

Editorial

World View

Research Highlights

Seven Days

News

Correction

News Feature

Comment

Books & Arts

  • Books & Arts |

    Brad DeLong examines a study that places the origins of the Industrial Revolution in fifteenth-century Europe.

    • Brad DeLong
  • Books & Arts |

    Edward Humes weighs up an analysis of dangerously partial solutions to environmental damage.

    • Edward Humes

Correspondence

News & Views

  • News & Views |

    A 16-year-old synthetic genetic circuit that produces gene-expression oscillations in bacterial cells has been given an upgrade, making it an exceptionally precise biological clock. See Letter p.514

    • Xiaojing J. Gao
    •  & Michael B. Elowitz
  • News & Views |

    In 1991, an energy-efficient solar cell was reported that was both simple in design and relatively inexpensive. This invention has since inspired the development of solar cells that have even higher efficiencies.

    • Mohammad K. Nazeeruddin
  • News & Views |

    Variations in opinion between members of a community can be exploited to facilitate desirable changes in attitude, as exemplified by films that explore different beliefs about female genital cutting. See Letter p.506

    • Nicholas A. Christakis
  • News & Views |

    Binary and multiple star systems result from the fragmentation of dense material in young molecular clouds. Observations reveal that this can occur on small scales, supporting a previous model of star formation. See Letter p.483

    • Adele Plunkett
  • News & Views |

    The human brain can solve highly abstract reasoning problems using a neural network that is entirely physical. The underlying mechanisms are only partially understood, but an artificial network provides valuable insight. See Article p.471

    • Herbert Jaeger
  • News & Views |

    A discovery of the sound-producing vocal organ known as the syrinx in a bird fossil from the end of the 'age of dinosaurs' highlights the anatomical basis for myriad aspects of avian social and behavioural evolution. See Letter p.502

    • Patrick M. O'Connor

Correction

Article

  • Article |

    A ‘differentiable neural computer’ is introduced that combines the learning capabilities of a neural network with an external memory analogous to the random-access memory in a conventional computer.

    • Alex Graves
    • , Greg Wayne
    • , Malcolm Reynolds
    • , Tim Harley
    • , Ivo Danihelka
    • , Agnieszka Grabska-Barwińska
    • , Sergio Gómez Colmenarejo
    • , Edward Grefenstette
    • , Tiago Ramalho
    • , John Agapiou
    • , Adrià Puigdomènech Badia
    • , Karl Moritz Hermann
    • , Yori Zwols
    • , Georg Ostrovski
    • , Adam Cain
    • , Helen King
    • , Christopher Summerfield
    • , Phil Blunsom
    • , Koray Kavukcuoglu
    •  & Demis Hassabis
  • Article |

    S63845 specifically inhibits MCL1 and induces tumour cell death in vitro and in vivo in diverse cancer-derived cell lines with an acceptable safety margin.

    • András Kotschy
    • , Zoltán Szlavik
    • , James Murray
    • , James Davidson
    • , Ana Leticia Maragno
    • , Gaëtane Le Toumelin-Braizat
    • , Maïa Chanrion
    • , Gemma L. Kelly
    • , Jia-Nan Gong
    • , Donia M. Moujalled
    • , Alain Bruno
    • , Márton Csekei
    • , Attila Paczal
    • , Zoltán B. Szabo
    • , Szabolcs Sipos
    • , Gábor Radics
    • , Agnes Proszenyak
    • , Balázs Balint
    • , Levente Ondi
    • , Gábor Blasko
    • , Alan Robertson
    • , Allan Surgenor
    • , Pawel Dokurno
    • , Ijen Chen
    • , Natalia Matassova
    • , Julia Smith
    • , Christopher Pedder
    • , Christopher Graham
    • , Aurélie Studeny
    • , Gaëlle Lysiak-Auvity
    • , Anne-Marie Girard
    • , Fabienne Gravé
    • , David Segal
    • , Chris D. Riffkin
    • , Giovanna Pomilio
    • , Laura C. A. Galbraith
    • , Brandon J. Aubrey
    • , Margs S. Brennan
    • , Marco J. Herold
    • , Catherine Chang
    • , Ghislaine Guasconi
    • , Nicolas Cauquil
    • , Fabien Melchiore
    • , Nolwen Guigal-Stephan
    • , Brian Lockhart
    • , Frédéric Colland
    • , John A. Hickman
    • , Andrew W. Roberts
    • , David C. S. Huang
    • , Andrew H. Wei
    • , Andreas Strasser
    • , Guillaume Lessene
    •  & Olivier Geneste

Letter

  • Letter |

    Observations of the triple protostar system L1448 IRS3B support the hypothesis that companion stars can form because of gravitational instability in a protostellar disk.

    • John J. Tobin
    • , Kaitlin M. Kratter
    • , Magnus V. Persson
    • , Leslie W. Looney
    • , Michael M. Dunham
    • , Dominique Segura-Cox
    • , Zhi-Yun Li
    • , Claire J. Chandler
    • , Sarah I. Sadavoy
    • , Robert J. Harris
    • , Carl Melis
    •  & Laura M. Pérez
  • Letter |

    Simultaneous measurement of two incompatible observables in a superconducting qubit placed in a cavity shows that the quantum dynamics of the system is governed by the uncertainty principle and that the wavefunction collapse is replaced by persistent diffusion.

    • Shay Hacohen-Gourgy
    • , Leigh S. Martin
    • , Emmanuel Flurin
    • , Vinay V. Ramasesh
    • , K. Birgitta Whaley
    •  & Irfan Siddiqi
  • Letter |

    Resonance ionization spectroscopy of nobelium (atomic number 102) reveals its ground-state transition and an upper limit for its ionization potential, paving the way to characterizing even heavier elements via optical spectroscopy.

    • Mustapha Laatiaoui
    • , Werner Lauth
    • , Hartmut Backe
    • , Michael Block
    • , Dieter Ackermann
    • , Bradley Cheal
    • , Premaditya Chhetri
    • , Christoph Emanuel Düllmann
    • , Piet van Duppen
    • , Julia Even
    • , Rafael Ferrer
    • , Francesca Giacoppo
    • , Stefan Götz
    • , Fritz Peter Heßberger
    • , Mark Huyse
    • , Oliver Kaleja
    • , Jadambaa Khuyagbaatar
    • , Peter Kunz
    • , Felix Lautenschläger
    • , Andrew Kishor Mistry
    • , Sebastian Raeder
    • , Enrique Minaya Ramirez
    • , Thomas Walther
    • , Calvin Wraith
    •  & Alexander Yakushev
  • Letter |

    Analysis of observations and model projections provides large-scale emergent constraints on the extent of CO2 fertilization, with estimated increases in gross primary productivity for both high-latitude and extratropical ecosystems under elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations.

    • Sabrina Wenzel
    • , Peter M. Cox
    • , Veronika Eyring
    •  & Pierre Friedlingstein
  • Letter |

    Birds make sound in the syrinx, a unique vocal organ situated deep in the chest, but little is known about the evolution of this structure; a fossilized Cretaceous age syrinx from Antarctica is described from a species that might have been capable of making a goose-like honking sound.

    • Julia A. Clarke
    • , Sankar Chatterjee
    • , Zhiheng Li
    • , Tobias Riede
    • , Federico Agnolin
    • , Franz Goller
    • , Marcelo P. Isasi
    • , Daniel R. Martinioni
    • , Francisco J. Mussel
    •  & Fernando E. Novas
  • Letter |

    Entertaining movies addressing both individual values and marriageability can provide a way to change cultural attitudes towards female genital cutting within certain cultures.

    • Sonja Vogt
    • , Nadia Ahmed Mohmmed Zaid
    • , Hilal El Fadil Ahmed
    • , Ernst Fehr
    •  & Charles Efferson
  • Letter |

    Analysis of ancient DNA from four individuals who lived in Vanuatu and Tonga between 2,300 and 3,100 years ago suggests that the Papuan ancestry seen in present-day occupants of this region was introduced at a later date.

    • Pontus Skoglund
    • , Cosimo Posth
    • , Kendra Sirak
    • , Matthew Spriggs
    • , Frederique Valentin
    • , Stuart Bedford
    • , Geoffrey R. Clark
    • , Christian Reepmeyer
    • , Fiona Petchey
    • , Daniel Fernandes
    • , Qiaomei Fu
    • , Eadaoin Harney
    • , Mark Lipson
    • , Swapan Mallick
    • , Mario Novak
    • , Nadin Rohland
    • , Kristin Stewardson
    • , Syafiq Abdullah
    • , Murray P. Cox
    • , Françoise R. Friedlaender
    • , Jonathan S. Friedlaender
    • , Toomas Kivisild
    • , George Koki
    • , Pradiptajati Kusuma
    • , D. Andrew Merriwether
    • , Francois-X. Ricaut
    • , Joseph T. S. Wee
    • , Nick Patterson
    • , Johannes Krause
    • , Ron Pinhasi
    •  & David Reich

    Collection:

  • Letter |

    The first synthetic genetic oscillator or ‘repressilator’ is simplified using insights from stochastic theory, thus achieving remarkably precise and robust oscillations and informing current debates about the next generation of synthetic circuits and their potential applications in cell-based therapies.

    • Laurent Potvin-Trottier
    • , Nathan D. Lord
    • , Glenn Vinnicombe
    •  & Johan Paulsson
  • Letter |

    Here, leukaemia cells are followed by intravital microscopy as they infiltrate mouse bone marrow and respond to chemotherapy, revealing that at all stages analysed they are highly motile and do not display any associations with particular bone marrow sub-compartments.

    • Edwin D. Hawkins
    • , Delfim Duarte
    • , Olufolake Akinduro
    • , Reema A. Khorshed
    • , Diana Passaro
    • , Malgorzata Nowicka
    • , Lenny Straszkowski
    • , Mark K. Scott
    • , Steve Rothery
    • , Nicola Ruivo
    • , Katie Foster
    • , Michaela Waibel
    • , Ricky W. Johnstone
    • , Simon J. Harrison
    • , David A. Westerman
    • , Hang Quach
    • , John Gribben
    • , Mark D. Robinson
    • , Louise E. Purton
    • , Dominique Bonnet
    •  & Cristina Lo Celso
  • Letter |

    High-resolution three-dimensional maps of chromatin contacts in the developing human brain help to identify enhancer–promoter contacts, many of which are associated with human cognitive function and disease.

    • Hyejung Won
    • , Luis de la Torre-Ubieta
    • , Jason L. Stein
    • , Neelroop N. Parikshak
    • , Jerry Huang
    • , Carli K. Opland
    • , Michael J. Gandal
    • , Gavin J. Sutton
    • , Farhad Hormozdiari
    • , Daning Lu
    • , Changhoon Lee
    • , Eleazar Eskin
    • , Irina Voineagu
    • , Jason Ernst
    •  & Daniel H. Geschwind

    Collection:

  • Letter |

    Inactivation of three Tet genes in mice leads to gastrulation phenotypes similar to those in embryos with increased Nodal signalling, revealing a functional redundancy of Tet genes and showing balanced and dynamic DNA methylation and demethylation is crucial to regulate key signalling pathways in early body plan formation.

    • Hai-Qiang Dai
    • , Bang-An Wang
    • , Lu Yang
    • , Jia-Jia Chen
    • , Guo-Chun Zhu
    • , Mei-Ling Sun
    • , Hao Ge
    • , Rui Wang
    • , Deborah L. Chapman
    • , Fuchou Tang
    • , Xin Sun
    •  & Guo-Liang Xu
  • Letter |

    X-ray structures of C. elegans TRIC-B subtype channels reveal that the membrane proteins form a symmetrical homotrimeric complex, and a mechanistic model to explain the complex gating mechanism of TRIC channels is proposed.

    • Hanting Yang
    • , Miaohui Hu
    • , Jianli Guo
    • , Xiaomin Ou
    • , Tanxi Cai
    •  & Zhenfeng Liu

Corrigendum

  • Corrigendum |

    • S. Kathleen Lyons
    • , Kathryn L. Amatangelo
    • , Anna K. Behrensmeyer
    • , Antoine Bercovici
    • , Jessica L. Blois
    • , Matt Davis
    • , William A. DiMichele
    • , Andrew Du
    • , Jussi T. Eronen
    • , J. Tyler Faith
    • , Gary R. Graves
    • , Nathan Jud
    • , Conrad Labandeira
    • , Cindy V. Looy
    • , Brian McGill
    • , Joshua H. Miller
    • , David Patterson
    • , Silvia Pineda-Munoz
    • , Richard Potts
    • , Brett Riddle
    • , Rebecca Terry
    • , Anikó Tóth
    • , Werner Ulrich
    • , Amelia Villaseñor
    • , Scott Wing
    • , Heidi Anderson
    • , John Anderson
    • , Donald Waller
    •  & Nicholas J. Gotelli
  • Corrigendum |

    • Louise A. Hyslop
    • , Paul Blakeley
    • , Lyndsey Craven
    • , Jessica Richardson
    • , Norah M. E. Fogarty
    • , Elpida Fragouli
    • , Mahdi Lamb
    • , Sissy E. Wamaitha
    • , Nilendran Prathalingam
    • , Qi Zhang
    • , Hannah O’Keefe
    • , Yuko Takeda
    • , Lucia Arizzi
    • , Samer Alfarawati
    • , Helen A. Tuppen
    • , Laura Irving
    • , Dimitrios Kalleas
    • , Meenakshi Choudhary
    • , Dagan Wells
    • , Alison P. Murdoch
    • , Douglass M. Turnbull
    • , Kathy K. Niakan
    •  & Mary Herbert

Erratum

Feature

  • Feature |

    Three advocates explain how their groups are trying to improve junior researchers' experiences.

    • Virginia Gewin

    Special:

Q&A

  • Q&A |

    William Tracy is one of only two sweetcorn breeders in the United States. Here's how he hopes to train a new generation.

    • Virginia Gewin

Futures

  • Futures |

    A well-kept secret.

    • Hall Jameson

Brief Communications Arising

  • Brief Communications Arising |

    • Richard J. Telford
    • , Joseph D. Chipperfield
    • , Hilary H. Birks
    •  & H. John B. Birks
  • Brief Communications Arising |

    • S. Kathleen Lyons
    • , Joshua H. Miller
    • , Kathryn L. Amatange
    • , Anna K. Behrensmeyer
    • , Antoine Bercovici
    • , Jessica L. Blois
    • , Matt Davis
    • , William DiMichele
    • , Andrew Du
    • , Jussi T. Eronen
    • , J. Tyler Faith
    • , Gary R. Graves
    • , Nathan Jud
    • , Conrad Labandeira
    • , Cindy V. Looy
    • , Brian McGill
    • , David Patterson
    • , Silvia Pineda-Munoz
    • , Richard Potts
    • , Brett Riddle
    • , Rebecca Terry
    • , Anikó Tóth
    • , Werner Ulrich
    • , Amelia Villaseñor
    • , Scott Wing
    • , Heidi Anderson
    • , John Anderson
    •  & Nicholas J. Gotelli

Outlook

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