Volume 535 Issue 7613, 28 July 2016

Nature Index

  • Nature Index |

    Nature Index 2016 Rising Stars seeks to pinpoint the ascendant performers of science, using the power of the Nature Index, which tracks the research of more than 8,000 global institutions.

    • Larissa Kogleck
  • Nature Index |

    Resources for scientific research are spread unevenly throughout countries. Spending priorities vary according to budget constraints, historic research strengths and industry demands.

  • Nature Index |

    In institutions everywhere from super-cities to remote desert locations, researchers are setting the world of discovery on fire and pushing their institutions up the Nature Index rankings.

Editorial

World View

Research Highlights

Seven Days

  • Seven Days |

    Solar-powered plane completes round-the-world trip; 2016 on track to become hottest year; and Mexico tries to save endangered porpoise.

News

News Feature

Comment

  • Comment |

    Britain’s vote to leave the European Union is jeopardizing scientists’ funds, collaborations, staff and students; it has left the nation reeling and Europe vulnerable. These schismatic times have researchers worldwide soul-searching over how best to contribute. Five experts offer their reflections.

Books & Arts

Correspondence

News & Views

  • News & Views |

    Computational models persistently underestimate strong currents that redistribute ocean heat. This problem is solved in models in which ocean eddies are damped by coupling of the atmosphere with the sea. See Letter p.533

    • Kathryn A. Kelly
    •  & LuAnne Thompson
  • News & Views |

    Observations of X-ray emission — a diagnostic tool for the mechanisms driving stellar magnetic fields — from four cool stars call into question accepted models of magnetic-field generation in the Sun and stars. See Letter p.526

    • Paul Charbonneau
  • News & Views |

    Bacteria that are normally resident in the body have many roles in supporting health. Researchers have now identified a bacterial resident of the nose that produces an antibiotic that is active against a pathogen. See Article p.511

    • Kim Lewis
    •  & Philip Strandwitz
  • News & Views |

    Pluripotent cells have the potential to differentiate into any cell type in the body. Their isolation and propagation from mouse embryos was pivotal for advances in understanding human development and disease.

    • M. Azim Surani
  • News & Views |

    Cellular organelles called mitochondria contain their own DNA. The discovery that variation in mitochondrial DNA alters physiology and lifespan in mice has implications for evolutionary biology and the origins of disease. See Letter p.561

    • Douglas C. Wallace
  • News & Views |

    The people of a tribe called the Tsimane’, who have been isolated from Western music, perceive music differently from Western listeners, raising questions about whether musical preference is innate or cultural. See Letter p.547

    • Robert Zatorre

Futures

  • Futures |

    Specific requirements.

    • Filip Wiltgren

Correction

Corrigendum

Letter

  • Letter |

    Rayleigh waves recorded with an ocean-bottom seismograph array in the central Pacific Ocean constrain the seismic anisotropy within the oceanic lithosphere–asthenosphere system: seafloor-spreading-induced lithospheric fabric generates the strongest anisotropy, while density- and/or pressure-driven flow produces a secondary peak in anisotropy at the base of the asthenosphere.

    • Pei-Ying Patty Lin
    • , James B. Gaherty
    • , Ge Jin
    • , John A. Collins
    • , Daniel Lizarralde
    • , Rob. L. Evans
    •  & Greg Hirth
  • Letter |

    Simulations of dwarf galaxies that include photoelectric grain heating and supernovae indicate that the former is the dominant means by which these galaxies regulate their star formation rate, because the latter are unable to account for the observed large gas depletion times.

    • John C. Forbes
    • , Mark R. Krumholz
    • , Nathan J. Goldbaum
    •  & Avishai Dekel
  • Letter |

    An in-depth analysis of the structure, chromatin accessibility and expression status of the mouse inactive X (Xi) chromosome provides insights into the regulation of Xi chromosome structure, its dependence on the macrosatellite DXZ4 region, the Xist non-coding RNA, as well as the basis for topologically associating domain (TAD) formation on the Xi.

    • Luca Giorgetti
    • , Bryan R. Lajoie
    • , Ava C. Carter
    • , Mikael Attia
    • , Ye Zhan
    • , Jin Xu
    • , Chong Jian Chen
    • , Noam Kaplan
    • , Howard Y. Chang
    • , Edith Heard
    •  & Job Dekker

    Collection:

  • Letter |

    Conplastic mice that share the same nuclear genome but have different mitochondrial DNA were analysed throughout their life — the mitochondrial genome affects many aspects of physiology and results in differences in median lifespan; the authors propose that the interplay of mitochondrial and nuclear genomes may be an important factor influencing this phenomenon.

    • Ana Latorre-Pellicer
    • , Raquel Moreno-Loshuertos
    • , Ana Victoria Lechuga-Vieco
    • , Fátima Sánchez-Cabo
    • , Carlos Torroja
    • , Rebeca Acín-Pérez
    • , Enrique Calvo
    • , Esther Aix
    • , Andrés González-Guerra
    • , Angela Logan
    • , María Luisa Bernad-Miana
    • , Eduardo Romanos
    • , Raquel Cruz
    • , Sara Cogliati
    • , Beatriz Sobrino
    • , Ángel Carracedo
    • , Acisclo Pérez-Martos
    • , Patricio Fernández-Silva
    • , Jesús Ruíz-Cabello
    • , Michael P. Murphy
    • , Ignacio Flores
    • , Jesús Vázquez
    •  & José Antonio Enríquez
  • Letter |

    A native Amazonian society rated consonant and dissonant chords and vocal harmonies as equally pleasant, whereas Bolivian city- and town-dwellers preferred consonance, indicating that preference for consonance over dissonance is not universal and probably develops from exposure to particular types of polyphonic music.

    • Josh H. McDermott
    • , Alan F. Schultz
    • , Eduardo A. Undurraga
    •  & Ricardo A. Godoy
  • Letter |

    The relationship between the X-ray activity and rotation of a star is a well-established proxy for the behaviour of the stellar dynamo; observations of four fully convective stars for which this relationship is similar to that of solar-type stars imply that the same dynamo mechanism is at work despite their structural differences to the Sun.

    • Nicholas J. Wright
    •  & Jeremy J. Drake
  • Letter |

    In coupled climate model simulations the strength of major oceanic fronts associated with western boundary currents—tremendous conveyors of ocean heat towards the poles—is systematically underestimated, but this can be addressed by resolving not only ocean mesoscale eddies but, more importantly, their feedback with the atmosphere.

    • Xiaohui Ma
    • , Zhao Jing
    • , Ping Chang
    • , Xue Liu
    • , Raffaele Montuoro
    • , R. Justin Small
    • , Frank O. Bryan
    • , Richard J. Greatbatch
    • , Peter Brandt
    • , Dexing Wu
    • , Xiaopei Lin
    •  & Lixin Wu
  • Letter |

    A combination of single-molecule techniques shows that the repair proteins XRCC4 and XLF form heteromeric mobile sleeve-like complexes that can bridge and hold together fragments of broken DNA.

    • Ineke Brouwer
    • , Gerrit Sitters
    • , Andrea Candelli
    • , Stephanie J. Heerema
    • , Iddo Heller
    • , Abinadabe J. Melo de
    • , Hongshan Zhang
    • , Davide Normanno
    • , Mauro Modesti
    • , Erwin J. G. Peterman
    •  & Gijs J. L. Wuite
  • Letter |

    A translation complex sequencing approach has been developed enabling intermediates of all mRNA-associated processes of translation to be isolated and localized across the transcriptome; the results support longstanding models of initiation and termination and offer new mechanistic insights.

    • Stuart K. Archer
    • , Nikolay E. Shirokikh
    • , Traude H. Beilharz
    •  & Thomas Preiss
  • Letter |

    In a mouse model of ischaemia, mitochondrial particles released from astroctyes are taken up by adjacent neurons, leading to enhanced cell survival signalling; disruption of this release mechanism resulted in worsened neurological outcomes.

    • Kazuhide Hayakawa
    • , Elga Esposito
    • , Xiaohua Wang
    • , Yasukazu Terasaki
    • , Yi Liu
    • , Changhong Xing
    • , Xunming Ji
    •  & Eng H. Lo
  • Letter |

    A phase IIa clinical trial shows that the administration of the broadly neutralizing antibody 3BNC117 delays viral rebound following the discontinuation of antiretroviral therapy in patients who were chronically infected with HIV-1.

    • Johannes F. Scheid
    • , Joshua A. Horwitz
    • , Yotam Bar-On
    • , Edward F. Kreider
    • , Ching-Lan Lu
    • , Julio C. C. Lorenzi
    • , Anna Feldmann
    • , Malte Braunschweig
    • , Lilian Nogueira
    • , Thiago Oliveira
    • , Irina Shimeliovich
    • , Roshni Patel
    • , Leah Burke
    • , Yehuda Z. Cohen
    • , Sonya Hadrigan
    • , Allison Settler
    • , Maggi Witmer-Pack
    • , Anthony P. West, Jr.
    • , Boris Juelg
    • , Tibor Keler
    • , Thomas Hawthorne
    • , Barry Zingman
    • , Roy M. Gulick
    • , Nico Pfeifer
    • , Gerald H. Learn
    • , Michael S. Seaman
    • , Pamela J. Bjorkman
    • , Florian Klein
    • , Sarah J. Schlesinger
    • , Bruce D. Walker
    • , Beatrice H. Hahn
    • , Michel C. Nussenzweig
    •  & Marina Caskey
  • Letter |

    Invasion of a somite-derived cell population into the apical ectodermal ridge in zebrafish regulates apical fold induction during fin formation; ablation of these cells inhibits formation of the apical fold and increases the size of the underlying fin bud mesenchyme, suggesting that somite-derived cells play a key part in the evolutionary transition from fins to limbs.

    • Wouter Masselink
    • , Nicholas J. Cole
    • , Fruzsina Fenyes
    • , Silke Berger
    • , Carmen Sonntag
    • , Alasdair Wood
    • , Phong D. Nguyen
    • , Naomi Cohen
    • , Franziska Knopf
    • , Gilbert Weidinger
    • , Thomas E. Hall
    •  & Peter D. Currie
  • Letter |

    Lattices of cubic building blocks that deform anisotropically and that are designed to fit together like a three-dimensional jigsaw puzzle are 3D printed to create aperiodic, frustration-free, mechanical metamaterials; these metamaterials act as programmable shape-shifters and are able to perform pattern analysis.

    • Corentin Coulais
    • , Eial Teomy
    • , Koen de Reus
    • , Yair Shokef
    •  & Martin van Hecke

Article

  • Article |

    The nasal commensal bacterium Staphylococcus lugdunensis produces a novel cyclic peptide antibiotic, lugdunin, that inhibits colonization by S. aureus in animal models and is associated with a significantly reduced S. aureus carriage rate in humans, suggesting that human commensal bacteria could be a valuable resource for the discovery of new antibiotics.

    • Alexander Zipperer
    • , Martin C. Konnerth
    • , Claudia Laux
    • , Anne Berscheid
    • , Daniela Janek
    • , Christopher Weidenmaier
    • , Marc Burian
    • , Nadine A. Schilling
    • , Christoph Slavetinsky
    • , Matthias Marschal
    • , Matthias Willmann
    • , Hubert Kalbacher
    • , Birgit Schittek
    • , Heike Brötz-Oesterhelt
    • , Stephanie Grond
    • , Andreas Peschel
    •  & Bernhard Krismer
  • Article |

    Structural studies show that the activity of the G-protein-coupled receptor Smoothened is modulated by ligand-regulated interactions between its extracellular and transmembrane domains.

    • Eamon F. X. Byrne
    • , Ria Sircar
    • , Paul S. Miller
    • , George Hedger
    • , Giovanni Luchetti
    • , Sigrid Nachtergaele
    • , Mark D. Tully
    • , Laurel Mydock-McGrane
    • , Douglas F. Covey
    • , Robert P. Rambo
    • , Mark S. P. Sansom
    • , Simon Newstead
    • , Rajat Rohatgi
    •  & Christian Siebold

Feature

Column

  • Column |

    Gina Maffey explains how she learned to overcome the hurdles of an interdisciplinary PhD.

    • Gina Maffey
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